!! History Commons Alert, Exciting News

Context of 'August 14, 1996: A. Q. Khan Receives Pakistani State Award'

This is a scalable context timeline. It contains events related to the event August 14, 1996: A. Q. Khan Receives Pakistani State Award. You can narrow or broaden the context of this timeline by adjusting the zoom level. The lower the scale, the more relevant the items on average will be, while the higher the scale, the less relevant the items, on average, will be.

Nuclear scientist A. Q. Khan calls Pakistani Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto to get her approval for a takeover by Khan of a factory in Karachi. The factory, the People’s Steel Mill, had been closed down due to poor management and corruption. Bhutto will say she is surprised that Khan calls her at all: “Frankly, I was shocked. I had got used to not hearing from him.” According to Bhutto, “He said he could do something really hi-tech there that would aid all aspects of life but particularly his program at KRL [Khan Research Laboratories].” Bhutto agrees and the plant soon becomes a key component in Khan’s nuclear program. At the same time, Bhutto also agrees to go to North Korea to facilitate co-operation between the two countries’ nuclear programs (see December 29, 1993 and Shortly After). [Levy and Scott-Clark, 2007, pp. 244]

Entity Tags: Abdul Qadeer Khan, People’s Steel Mill, Benazir Bhutto

Timeline Tags: A. Q. Khan's Nuclear Network

On a visit to Iran, Pakistani Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto quietly asks Iranian President Hashemi Rafsanjani about possible nuclear weapons transactions between their two countries. The question is prompted by rumors Bhutto has heard about some kind of nuclear weapons deals between them, and is put to Rafsanjani at a meeting with Bhutto and Pakistani President Farooq Ahmad Khan Leghari. Bhutto will later say: “I asked Rafsanjani: ‘Is there something going on? Is there a nuclear exchange?’ Rafsanjani looked surprised. He said he suspected it too but he said he knew nothing.” Bhutto will add that she later learns the Revolutionary Guard is the organization responsible for the deal in Iran, indicating Rafsanjani’s profession of ignorance may be genuine. The timing of this meeting is not entirely clear, as Bhutto visits Iran twice around this time, in December 1993 and November 1995. However, she is known to meet with Rafsanjani on November 7 during her second visit. [Levy and Scott-Clark, 2007, pp. 255, 511]

Entity Tags: Farooq Ahmad Khan Leghari, Hashemi Rafsanjani, Benazir Bhutto

Timeline Tags: A. Q. Khan's Nuclear Network

General Jehangir Karamat, chief of Pakistan’s general staff, issues a statement in support of nuclear scientist A. Q. Khan, saying that his “achievements to date are a source of strength and pride for the whole nation.” Authors Adrian Levy and Catherine Scott-Clark will cite this as an example of pressure being applied to have Khan’s status raised at this time, writing that Khan was “being maneuvered into ever more rarified positions,” and that a “growing lobby demanded that the prime minister award him another title.” [Levy and Scott-Clark, 2007, pp. 262] Khan receives Pakistan’s highest civilian honor the next month (see August 14, 1996).

Entity Tags: Abdul Qadeer Khan, Jehangir Karamat

Timeline Tags: A. Q. Khan's Nuclear Network

Nuclear proliferator A. Q. Khan receives Pakistan’s highest civilian honor, the Nishan-i-Imtiaz, from Pakistani President Farooq Ahmad Khan Leghari. The decision to grant the award was taken by Pakistani Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto, following pressure from supporters of Khan (see July 4, 1996). Bhutto will later say that the supporters called her at her office, demanding more tangible recognition for Khan’s “invaluable work.” “They kept pressuring me,” she will recall. “There was no modesty about it.” [Levy and Scott-Clark, 2007, pp. 262]

Entity Tags: Abdul Qadeer Khan, Farooq Ahmad Khan Leghari, Benazir Bhutto

Timeline Tags: A. Q. Khan's Nuclear Network

Ordering 

Time period


Email Updates

Receive weekly email updates summarizing what contributors have added to the History Commons database

 
Donate

Developing and maintaining this site is very labor intensive. If you find it useful, please give us a hand and donate what you can.
Donate Now

Volunteer

If you would like to help us with this effort, please contact us. We need help with programming (Java, JDO, mysql, and xml), design, networking, and publicity. If you want to contribute information to this site, click the register link at the top of the page, and start contributing.
Contact Us

Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, the textual content of each timeline is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike