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Context of '(Late 2001): Indonesian Environment Ministry Issues Decree Requiring Environmental Impact Assessment'

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Between 1997 and 2002, Monsanto makes at least $700,000 in illicit payments to at least 140 current and former Indonesian government officials and their family members in an effort to obtain legislation and ministerial decrees supporting the cultivation of genetically modified crops. The payments are made through Monsanto’s affiliates and representatives who have offices in Jakarta. The largest payment is for $373,990, which is used to design and build a house for a senior Ministry of Agriculture official. Monsanto even purchases the land for the house. “Other examples of improper payments include, among others, payments to a senior official of Budget Allocation at the National Planning and Development Board, totaling $86,690, and payments to other Ministry of Agriculture officials, totaling $8,100,” according to the US Securities and Exchange Commission. $29,500 is given to officials at the agriculture ministry in South Sulawesi, where the first shipment of Monsanto cotton is sent in 2001 (see March 15, 2001). [Reuters, 1/7/2001; Jakarta Post, 1/10/2001; US Securities and Exchange Commission, 1/6/2005; BBC, 1/7/2005] The payments are financed in part “through unauthorized, improperly documented and inflated sales of Monsanto’s pesticide products in Indonesia,” Monsanto later admits. [Monsanto, 1/6/2005]

Entity Tags: Monsanto

Timeline Tags: Seeds

As a result of pressure from civil society organizations and the public, Rizal Ramli, Indonesia’s coordinating minister for the economy, postpones the signing of an agreement between Indonesia and Monsanto on the planting of 20,000 hectares (49,400 acres) of genetically modified (GM) cotton seed in the province of South Sulawesi. The following day, Sonny Keraf, minister of environment, says an environmental impact assessment will be needed before any of Monsanto’s GM seed is distributed. [Asia Times, 1/20/2005]

Entity Tags: Rizal Ramli, Sonny Keraf, Monsanto

Timeline Tags: Seeds

Bungaran Saragih, Indonesia’s minister of agriculture, grants Monsanto limited approval to grow its Bollgard Bt cotton in the province of South Sulawesi, even though an environmental impact assessment ordered in September (see September 2000) has not been completed. He says the cotton will be grown in an experimental project. According to SEC documents, this approval was obtained through the efforts of a Monsanto manager and one of its representative entities, possibly PT Harvest International Indonesia, in Jakarta. [Jakarta Post, 1/10/2001; US Securities and Exchange Commission, 1/6/2005; Asia Times, 1/20/2005]

Entity Tags: Bungaran Saragih, Monsanto

Timeline Tags: Seeds

Forty tons of Monsanto’s Bt cotton seed arrives in Makassar, the capital city of the Indonesian province South Sulawesi. Local authorities apparently try to keep news of the shipment under wraps. According to the Jakarta Post, “The provincial plantation office denied reports of the seed’s arrival on Thursday morning, but at approximately 1 pm on Thursday, the Jakarta Post noticed a Russian Ilyusin transport plane, with body number IL-76T, unloading the seed in the airport’s military area. The wide-bodied plane, chartered by Norse Air Charter from Johannesburg, was tightly guarded, and reporters and photographers were barred from approaching the plane.” Four Monsanto officials eventually meet with the press and say the seeds have been imported to meet the needs of Indonesian farmers. “There are at least 400,000 hectares of cotton plantations to be developed by the farmers here,” one of the executives says. Activists try unsuccessfully to block the convoy of trucks as they leave the airport. [Jakarta Post, 3/17/2001] The trucks, under armed guard and marked “rice delivery,” deliver the cotton seeds to farms in seven different districts in South Sulawesi. [Asia Times, 1/20/2005] The seeds will be grown as part of an experiment aimed at assessing the crop’s performance so a decision can be made on whether the seeds should be grown commercially. [Institute for Science in Society, 12/5/2004]

Entity Tags: Monsanto

Timeline Tags: Seeds

According to counterterrorism expert Rohan Gunaratna, immediately after 9/11, a European intelligence agency warns the US that a prominent member of the Indonesian government is in close touch with al-Qaeda. This is said to come from communication intercepts. [Gunaratna, 2003, pp. 267] Hamzah Haz, vice president of Indonesia from July 2001 to October 2004, calls himself “very close” to Islamist militant leaders such as Abu Bakar Bashir, the alleged spiritual leader of the al-Qaeda affiliate Jemaah Islamiyah. But there have been no reports linking him to al-Qaeda (see July 23, 2001-October 20, 2004).

Entity Tags: Hamzah Haz, Rohan Gunaratna

Timeline Tags: Complete 911 Timeline

Some months after the arrival of 40 tons of Monsanto’s Bt cotton seeds (see March 15, 2001), after a change in government, Indonesia’s environment ministry issues a decree requiring an environmental impact assessment for Monsanto’s cottonseeds. [US Securities and Exchange Commission, 1/6/2005; Asia Times, 1/20/2005]

Entity Tags: Indonesia

Timeline Tags: Seeds

St. Louis Federal District Judge Rodney W. Sippel allows an antitrust case against Monsanto Company, Bayer, Syngenta, and Pioneer seed companies to proceed. According to the lawsuit, which was filed in 1999 (see March 15, 2001), documents show that the companies conspired during the late 1990s to fix prices and control the seed market. The second part of the lawsuit—which blames the companies for the huge losses suffered by farmers because of global opposition to genetically modified crops—is dismissed. [New York Times, 9/24/2003] Judge Sippel was once listed as one of three lawyers defending Monsanto in a similar case. [Guardian, 1/10/2004]

Entity Tags: Rodney W. Sippel, Pioneer Hi-Bred International Inc., Syngenta, Monsanto, Bayer

Timeline Tags: Seeds

Iranian Oil Minister Bijan Namdar Zanganeh signs a memorandum of understanding with his Indonesian counterpart Purnomo Yusgiantoro that Iran will build a $3 billion refinery in Indonesia. As part of the deal, Indonesia will receive 300,000 barrels per day of heavy crude and Tehran will get a 30 percent stake in PT Pertamina, Indonesia’s state oil company. National Iranian Oil Company and Pertamina will lead the four-year project, which Iran hopes will provide security for Iran’s market supply. [Islamic Republic News Agency, 3/16/2005; Bloomberg, 3/18/2005]

Entity Tags: Purnomo Yusgiantoro, Bijan Namdar Zanganeh, National Iranian Oil Company, PT Pertamina

Timeline Tags: US confrontation with Iran

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