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Context of 'September 25, 1956: Francois Duvalier Becomes President of Haiti'

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Francois Duvalier wins the Haitian presidential elections. Duvalier creates a totalitarian dictatorship and in 1964 declares himself president-for-life. He rules the country until his death in April 1971. His heir, the nineteen-year-old Jean-Claude, continues the dynasty until January 7, 1986 when Duvalier and his wife flee for France amid popular uprising. [Rogozinski, 1992, pp. 243]

Entity Tags: Jean-Claude Duvalier, Francois Duvalier

Timeline Tags: US-Haiti (1804-2005)

In Haiti, the Front for the Advancement of Progress of the Haitian People (FRAPH) overthrows the government while Haitian President Jean-Bertrand Aristide is on a visit to the UN in New York. The group rules as a repressive military regime until 1994 when a US-led UN intervention puts Aristide back in power (see September 19, 1994-October 15, 1994) [Rogozinski, 1992; Observer, 3/2/2004] The junta is responsible for the massacre of hundreds—or by some estimates, thousands—of dissidents. [Turck, 2/24/2004; Observer, 3/2/2004; Jamaica Observer, 3/7/2004] The leader of the group is Emmanuel “Toto” Constant, who later acknowledges he had support from the CIA. “Emmanuel Constant is widely alleged, and himself claims, to have been in the pay of, and under the orders of, the US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) during the coup period,” Amnesty International will later report. The amount paid to Constant by the CIA during this period is $500/month. [Amnesty International, 2/7/1996; Center for Constitutional Rights, 2/18/2004; Observer, 3/2/2004; London Review of Books, 4/15/2004] Second in command is Louis-Jodel Chamblain, who had led death squads during the years of Jean-Claude “Baby Doc” Duvalier’s dictatorship and who is later convicted and implicated in multiple crimes committed during this period. [Observer, 3/2/2004; Jamaica Observer, 3/7/2004]

Entity Tags: Louis-Jodel Chamblain, Jean-Bertrand Aristide, Emmanuel “Toto” Constant

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup, US-Haiti (1804-2005)

Antoine Izmery, financier of Haitian President Jean-Claude Bertrand and a known pro-democracy advocate, is dragged from church during a mass, and executed. Louis-Jodel Chamblain is later convicted in absentia and sentenced to life imprisonment for the crime. [Human Rights Watch, 2/27/2004; Jamaica Observer, 3/7/2004; Amnesty International, 3/10/2004]

Entity Tags: Louis-Jodel Chamblain, Antoine Izmery, Jean-Bertrand Aristide

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup

Haitian Justice Minister Guy Malary and his bodyguard are killed in an ambush. According to a CIA memorandum, dated October 28, 1993, which will later be obtained by the Center for Constitutional Rights, “FRAPH members Jodel Chamblain, Emmanuel Constant, and Gabriel Douzable met with an unidentified military officer on the morning of 14 October to discuss plans to kill Malary.” According to the Center, “Constant at the time was a paid CIA informant, earning $500 a month.” [Center for Constitutional Rights, 2/18/2004; Human Rights Watch, 2/27/2004]

Entity Tags: Emmanuel “Toto” Constant, Louis-Jodel Chamblain

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup

On April 18 and 22, 1994, members of the Haitian Armed Forces and the paramilitary Front for the Advancement and Progress of Haiti (FRAPH) enter the coastal slum of Raboteau on the outskirts of the city of Gonaives. They break into “dozens of homes, beating, and arresting those they found inside,” the BBC will recount several years later. Several of the victims are “tortured on site” and “forced to lie in open sewers” while others are shot as they try to escape. [Jamaica Observer, 3/7/2004; BBC, 10/4/2004; Center for Justice and Accountability, 1/10/2005] Between two dozen and one hundred deaths are attributed to the Raboteau Massacre. The number will remain undetermined, however, because the attackers kill many who are fleeing in boats and whose bodies fall into the sea. Additionally, the killers toss several bodies of people killed on the land also into the ocean. Days later, mutilated bodies wash back to shore. [St. Petersburg Times, 9/1/2002; Amnesty International, 3/10/2004; Center for Justice and Accountability, 1/10/2005] Among those who will be convicted for the atrocity are Louis-Jodel Chamblain and Jean Pierre Baptiste. [Human Rights Watch, 2/27/2004; Jamaica Observer, 3/7/2004; Amnesty International, 3/10/2004; BBC, 10/4/2004; Center for Justice and Accountability, 1/10/2005]

Entity Tags: Louis-Jodel Chamblain, Jean Pierre Baptiste, “Jean Tatoune”

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup

US and UN military forces enter Haiti and restore Jean-Bertrand Aristide to the presidency. [Turck, 2/24/2004] US conservatives, such as Senator Jesse Helms, are against the intervention and criticize President Bill Clinton for engaging in unnecessary “nation building” in Haiti. Helms falsely makes the claim on the Senate floor that Aristide is “psychotic,” based on a CIA document later revealed to be a forgery. [Newsday, 3/1/2004; Taipei Times, 3/1/2004; Observer, 3/2/2004]

Entity Tags: Jesse Helms, William Jefferson (“Bill”) Clinton, Jean-Bertrand Aristide

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup, US-Haiti (1804-2005)

The United States-led Multinational Force (MNF) searches the FRAPH office in Port-au-Prince and removes 60,000 pages of documents, mostly in French, which are given to the US. [Amnesty International, 2/7/1996; John Pike, 4/21/2001]

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup

Haiti’s government and lawyers for Alerte Belance, a Haitian woman who was assaulted by FRAPH forces during the coup period (see October 31, 1991), seek the FRAPH documents (see (Late October 1994)) from the US. But the US Defense Department refuses to provide them, saying the papers are classified and must first be reviewed before being released. The Haitian government wants to use the documents as evidence in the prosecution of FRAPH members and Belance’s attorneys have subpoenaed them for use as evidence in a lawsuit against FRAPH member Emmanuel Constant who is living openly in the USA, and who has admitted being a paid CIA asset during the FRAPH’s period of military rule in Haiti (see October 14, 1993). Belance’s lawyers say the documents could contain important information about FRAPH’s financing, their weapons, and the crimes they are accused of having committed. In October 1996, the US sends documents to Port-au-Prince, but the Haitian government refuses them on grounds that they are incomplete. [Inter Press Service, 10/10/1995; Amnesty International, 2/7/1996; Amnesty International, 2/7/1996]

Entity Tags: Emmanuel “Toto” Constant, Alerte Belance

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup

Presidential elections are held and Rene Preval wins in a landslide victory. He succeeds the popular Jean-Bertrand Aristide who is barred from running again because of the Haitian constitution’s prohibition on consecutive presidential terms. [CNN, 12/16/1995; CNN, 12/17/1995]

Entity Tags: Rene Preval, Jean-Bertrand Aristide

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup

Guy Philippe serves as police chief in the Port-au-Prince suburb of Delmas. According to Human Rights Watch, “dozens of suspected gang members… [are] summarily executed, mainly by police under the command of Inspector Berthony Bazile, Philippe’s deputy.” Philippe will later deny the allegation in an interview with the Miami Herald. [Human Rights Watch, 2/27/2004; Miami Herald, 2/28/2004]

Entity Tags: Berthony Bazile, Guy Philippe

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup

Haitian President Rene Preval suspends congress and two-thirds of the senate after a dispute with the opposition party. As a result, more than 7,000 government jobs at the federal and local level become vacant. From this point on, Preval rules by decree. [BBC, 5/9/2003]

Entity Tags: Rene Preval

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup

After being postponed three times during the last seven months, Haitian parliamentary and local elections are finally held with a turnout of about 60 percent. Voters must fill some 7,625 posts in the legislature, mayoral commissions, and local and rural councils that were made vacant in January 1999, when the congress and local offices were disbanded by President Rene Preval (see January 1999). The Lavalas party of Jean-Bertrand Aristide wins the elections by a landslide, winning 15 of the 19 contested Senate seats and some 80 percent of the seats in the House of Assembly. However the results are challenged by the opposition, the US, and the Organization of American States, which say that Haiti’s electoral council did not use the proper formula to calculate the votes. As a result of the controversy, the opposition will boycott the June 9 run-off elections (see July 9, 2000) as well as the presidential elections in November (see November 2000). More significantly, aid donors threaten that they will continue to withhold $500 million in aid if the government does not come to an agreement with the opposition. [BBC, 5/22/2000; BBC, 5/22/2000; BBC, 5/30/2000; BBC, 7/8/2000; BBC, 7/14/2000; CBS News, 11/29/2000; Associated Press, 12/7/2000; US Department of State, 2/23/2001; Dollars and Sense, 9/7/2003; Turck, 2/24/2004; CounterPunch, 3/1/2004; Taipei Times, 3/1/2004]

Entity Tags: Jean-Bertrand Aristide, Rene Preval

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup

July 9, 2000: Run-Off Elections Held in Haiti

Haiti holds run-off elections for candidates who failed to win a majority of the votes in the May 21 elections (see May 21, 2000). However 10 senators from the party of Jean-Bertrand Aristide who won only by plurality, and not by majority, are not required to run, prompting immediate criticism from the US, UN, the OAS, and the opposition parties. Donor nations and organizations threaten to continue withholding $400 million in aid. [BBC, 7/11/2000; BBC, 7/14/2000; BBC, 2/7/2001; Miami Herald, 2/28/2004]

Entity Tags: Jean-Bertrand Aristide, Organization of American States (OAS)

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup

Jean-Bertrand Aristide runs unopposed in Haiti’s presidential elections and wins with 91.5 percent of the vote. The opposition Democratic Convergence party does not participate in the elections in protest of the May 21, 2000 congressional and municipal elections (see May 21, 2000) which its members claim were rigged. The election turnout is disputed. Though some news agencies report a low turnout of between 5 percent and 10 percent, Aristide’s party, as well as five US-based NGOs—Global Exchange, the Quixote Center, Witness for Peace, and Pax Christi—estimate the figure at 61 percent, or 3 million of Haiti’s voters. [BBC, 7/7/2000; CBS News, 11/29/2000; Associated Press, 12/7/2000; Global Exchange, 2001; Dollars and Sense, 9/7/2003; Turck, 2/24/2004; CounterPunch, 3/1/2004; Z Magazine, 5/5/2004] These figures are also supported by USAID-commissioned Gallup polls taken both before and after the elections, but which are suppressed by the US. [Z Magazine, 5/5/2004]

Entity Tags: Democratic Convergence, Jean-Bertrand Aristide, USAID

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup, US-Haiti (1804-2005)

The United States Government funds and trains a 600-member paramilitary army of anti-Aristide Haitians in the Dominican Republic with the authorization of the country’s president, Hipolito Mejia. The funds—totaling $1.2 milllion—are directed through the International Republican Institute (IRI) on the pretext of encouraging democracy in Haiti. In order to evade attention, the paramilitary soldiers appear at their training sessions dressed in the uniforms of the Dominican Republic national police. The training—provided by some 200 members of the US Special Forces—takes place in the Dominican villages of Neiba, San Cristobal, San Isidro, Hatillo, Haina, and others. Most of the training takes place on property owned by the Dominican Republic Government. Technical training, conducted once a month, takes place in a Santo Domingo hotel through the IRI. Among the Hatians that take part in the program are known human rights violators including Guy Philippe and Louis-Jodel Chamblain. [Newsday, 3/16/2004; Xinhua News Agency (Beijing), 3/29/2004; Radio Mundo, 4/2/2004; Democracy Now!, 4/7/2004]

Entity Tags: Louis-Jodel Chamblain, Guy Philippe, International Republican Institute

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup, US-Haiti (1804-2005)

Seven of the eight Haitian senators, whose elections are still being disputed by the Democratic Convergence (see May 21, 2000), resign after President Jean-Bertrand Aristide tells the General Assembly of the Organization of American States that he will hold new elections for the contested Senate seats within six months. But the Democratic Convergence is not satisfied with the concession and maintains its insistence that he resign and that it be put in charge of a non-elected “transition” government. [BBC, 6/8/2001; Dollars and Sense, 9/7/2003; Turck, 2/24/2004]

Entity Tags: Jean-Bertrand Aristide, Democratic Convergence

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup

The Haiti Democracy Project (HDP) is formally established. At its official launching, which takes place at the Brookings Institution in Washington, D.C., speakers warn that the current “crisis” in democracy in Haiti is worsening at an ever increasing pace. “… Luigi Einaudi opened the talks with dire predictions that Haiti was fast approaching a point where diplomatic means would no longer contribute to solve the crisis. According to Einaudi, those concerned about Haiti should at this time be gathering for a ‘wake.’ The rapidly deteriorating economic situation, the inability of the main protagonists to advance the negotiating process and the increasing protest demonstrations throughout the country made for a very bleak future.” US ambassador to the OAS, Roger Noriega also speaks at the ceremony. At one point, Noriega says, referring to the contested 2000 Haitian elections (see May 21, 2000), “We have to get them [The Haitian people] that opportunity as they will not participate in a farce.” [Haiti Democracy Project, 11/20/2004] Attending the event are some questionable figures including Stanley Lucas and Olivier Nadal. Lucas is said to be the point man in Haiti for the USAID-financed International Republican Institute, which is providing training and funds to anti-Aristide Haitian rebels in the Dominican Republic (see (2001-2004)). Nadal is a Miami-based Haitian businessman and the former president of the Haitian Chamber of Commerce. [Haiti Democracy Project, 11/20/2004] Nadal is implicated in a peasant massacre that occurred in the Haitian town of Piatre. In 1990, a group of peasants were killed by Nadal’s security after they squatted on unused land that he owned. [Haiti Progres, 7/21/1999; National Coalition for Haitian Rights, 4/24/2004] The prominent businessman Antoine Izmery said shortly before he was murdered that Nadal had been one of the financiers of the 1991 coup d’etat (see October 31, 1991) that ousted Aristide from office. And in 1994, the United States government froze Nadal’s assets because of his suspected involvement in the coup. [Haiti Progres, 7/21/1999] The Haiti Democracy Project is funded by the wealthy, right-wing Haitian Boulos family, which owns several companies including Pharval Pharmaceuticals, the USAID-funded Radio Vision 2000, the Delimart supermarket, and Le Matin. In February 2002, Rudolph Boulos was under investigation for his possible involvement in the assassination of Haitian journalist Jean Dominique who had been very critical of Pharval after contamination of the company’s “Afrebril and Valodon” syrups with diethyl alcohol had resulted in the deaths of 60 children. [Haiti Progres, 7/21/1999; Haiti Weekly News, 2/28/2002; Knight Ridder, 3/11/2004; Haiti Democracy Project, 11/20/2004] The project’s board of directors includes Rudolph Boulos, CEO of Pharval Laboratories; Vicki Carney of CRInternational; Prof. Henry F. Carey of Georgia State University; Timothy Carney, US ambassador to Haiti (1998-1999); Clotilde Charlot, former vice-president of the Haitian Association of Voluntary Agencies; Lionel Delatour of the Center for Free Enterprise and Democracy (CLED); Ira Lowenthal, an “Anthropologist”; Charles Manus; Orlando Marville, Chief of the OAS electoral mission to Haiti in 2000; James Morrell, the Haiti Democracy Project’s executive director; Lawrence Pezzullo, US special envoy for Haiti (1993-1994); and Ernest H. Preeg, US ambassador to Haiti (1981-1983). [Haiti Democracy Project, 3/26/2004]

Entity Tags: Luigi Einaudi, Lionel Delatour, Orlando Marville, Roger Francisco Noriega, Stanley Lucas, Vicki Carney, Timothy Carney, Lawrence Pezzullo, Rudolph Boulos, Jean-Bertrand Aristide, Olivier Nadal, James Morrell, Antoine Izmery, Charles Manus, Ernest H. Preeg, Clotilde Charlot, Henry F. Carey, Ira Lowenthal, Jean Dominique, Haiti Democracy Project

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup

Stanley Lucas, who is the point man in Haiti for the Republican-dominated International Republican Institute (IRI) based in the Dominican Republic, meets with Haitian rebel Guy Philippe and his men. Three months later the group will cross into Haiti and attack a hydroelectric power plant. Lucas has long ties to the Haitian military (see Early May 2003). After the toppling of Aristide’s government 12 months later, it will be learned that the group had been funded and trained through the IRI (see (2001-2004)). [Interhemispheric Resource Center, 2/27/2004; Newsday, 3/16/2004]

Entity Tags: Stanley Lucas, Guy Philippe, International Republican Institute

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup, US-Haiti (1804-2005)

A group of at least 20 paramilitary soldiers—trained and funded by the US (see (2001-2004)) —cross into Haiti from the neighboring Dominican Republic and attack a hydroelectric power plant on Haiti’s central plateau. Shortly after the attack, Dominican authorities, at the behest of the Haitian government, arrest five men, including Guy Philippe, in connection with the paramilitary operation. But they are quickly released by the Dominicans who say there is no evidence of their involvement in the attack. Philippe is interviewed by the Associated Press afterwards and asked what he is doing in the Dominican. Philippe, who mentions to the reporter that he would support a coup against Aristide, refuses to “say how he makes a living or what he does to spend his time in the Dominican Republic.” Less than one year later, Philippe will participate in the overthrow of the Aristide government. [Black Commentator, 5/15/2003] On the same day the five men are detained, Haitian authorities raid the Port-au-Prince residence of mayoral candidate Judith Roy of the Democratic Convergence opposition. The Haitians claim to find “assault weapons, ammunitions, and plans to attack the National Palace and Aristide’s suburban residence.” The Haitian government contends that Roy is close to Philippe. [Black Commentator, 5/15/2003]

Entity Tags: Judith Roy, Democratic Convergence, Guy Philippe

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup

Rebels take over cities in northern Haiti and move towards Haiti’s capital, Port-au-Prince, overrunning President Jean-Bertrand Aristide’s local police forces and vowing to overthrow him. [New York Times, 2/29/2004] The rebels include various factions. The leading groups are led by Louis-Jodel Chamblain, a convicted murderer and former death squad leader under “Baby Doc” Duvalier, and Guy Philippe, also a known human rights violator (see October 31, 1991) (see 1997-1999). [CounterPunch, 3/1/2004; Amnesty International, 3/3/2004; Associated Press, 3/3/2004]

Entity Tags: Louis-Jodel Chamblain, Roger Francisco Noriega, Jean-Claude Duvalier, Jean-Bertrand Aristide

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup, US-Haiti (1804-2005)

Amnesty International releases a statement calling on the US-led force in Haiti to prevent the paramilitary leaders from taking power. The organization makes the following demands: [Amnesty International, 3/3/2004]
bullet “The MIF must take urgent steps to guarantee that notorious human rights offenders with pending sentences for human rights convictions, and those facing indictments on human rights grounds, are taken into custody and brought before the Haitian justice system. Escapees must be returned to prison; those perpetrators convicted in absentia have the opportunity for a retrial, under Haitian law, and should be held in custody until the retrial occurs.” [Amnesty International, 3/3/2004]
bullet “The MIF must take immediate steps to disarm the rebel groups and armed pro-government gangs, to minimize the risks of ongoing human rights abuses.” [Amnesty International, 3/3/2004]
bullet “The international community must as a matter of priority ensure that under no circumstances are those convicted of or implicated in serious human rights abuses given any position of authority, whether in a transitional government or among the security forces, where they might commit further violations.” [Amnesty International, 3/3/2004]
bullet “The Multinational Interim Force (MIF) must take urgent steps to ensure that the safety of all police and justice officials, witnesses, and human rights defenders involved in bringing the individuals named in this report to justice is guaranteed.” [Amnesty International, 3/3/2004]
bullet “The MIF must take steps to protect police and judicial records relating to past human rights abuses.” [Amnesty International, 3/3/2004]
bullet “No amnesty for past or recent human rights abuses can be permitted.” [Amnesty International, 3/3/2004]
bullet “In the longer term, the international community must assist the Haitian justice system so that it can bring to justice all of those accused of involvement in human rights violations.” [Amnesty International, 3/3/2004]

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup

Haiti’s new justice minister, Bernard Gousse, announces that Haiti will seek the extradition of former president Jean-Bertrand Aristide for alleged corruption and human rights abuses. Gousse also suggests that convicted murderer and known human rights violator, Louis-Jodel Chamblain, could be pardoned. Chamblain was convicted in 2000 in absentia and sentenced to life imprisonment for his involvement in the Raboteau Massacre (see April 18-22, 1994). “We have to take into consideration that [Chamblain] helped get rid of two dictators in Haiti—[Jean-Claude] Duvalier and Aristide,” Gousse claims. [Miami Herald, 4/2/2004; Human Rights Watch, 4/5/2004; CNN, 4/8/2004] Human Rights Watch quickly condemns the suggestion. “The contrast between the Haitian government’s eagerness to prosecute former Aristide officials and its indifference to the abusive record of certain rebel leaders could not be more stark,” says Joanne Mariner, deputy director of Americas Division for Human Rights Watch. [Human Rights Watch, 4/5/2004; CNN, 4/8/2004]

Entity Tags: Joanne Mariner, Bernard Gousse, Louis-Jodel Chamblain

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup

Convicted murderer and rebel leader Louis-Jodel Chamblain (see September 11, 1993) (see April 18-22, 1994) surrenders to Haitian authorities. Chamberlain—in tears—says before his surrender, “The Haitian people will see if justice is for real, if we are on a new route for Haitian justice.” Since he had been convicted in absentia, he will be retried for his crimes as allowed under the Haitian constitution. [Miami Herald, 4/24/2004]

Entity Tags: Louis-Jodel Chamblain

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup

In an interview with the Miami Herald, Haitian rebel Guy Philippe says that his paramilitary group, the Front de Resistance, would soon be laying down its arms and founding a new political party, the Front de Reconstrucion Nationale. He adds that he will consider running as the party’s candidate for president. “We have to do a poll and see who has the advantage,”] he explains. “If the poll says I am the person, I will be the person.” If elected president, Philippe says his first priority would be reestablishing the Haitian national army. “This would be a professional army, not the one we had,” he says, reasoning that “[y]ou can’t have foreigners invest without security.” Next on his agenda, Philippe continues, would be “education, education, education.” And unlike Aristide, whose policies often conflicted with the interests of Haiti’s wealthy elite—“who have maintained a stark class system in Haiti for 200 years”—Philippe’s policies would avoid antagonizing them. “They have a key role in this country,” he explains. Philippe claims that he and other rebels, whom human rights groups have demanded be excluded from politics in post-Aristide Haiti (see March 3, 2004), are being misrepresented. For example, he contends that Louis-Jodel Chamblain, who was convicted in absentia for his involvement in the Raboteau Massacre (see April 18-22, 1994), is in fact a hero. “I’m sorry, but Chamblain is a hero. A lot of people love him here. He offered his life for his countrymen.” An unnamed US official tells the Miami Herald, “It’s a very scary thought. It’s all the same guys. Talk about taking one step forward and two steps back.” [Miami Herald, 4/30/2004]

Entity Tags: Guy Philippe, Louis-Jodel Chamblain

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup

Lorne Craner, president of the International Republican Institute (IRI), praises the Bush administration’s plan to spend three million dollars on the “advancement of democracy and human rights” in Iran (see April 11, 2005). “I am pleased to hear it has happened,” he tells United Press International. “The United States has been spreading democracy for years in other countries, it’s good we’re now doing it in Iran.” He also tells the newswire that IRI hopes to be awarded one of the State Department’s “democracy advancement” grants so it can work with Iranian groups. [United Press International, 4/11/2005] Only a year before, the Republican-controlled IRI was implicated in the ousting of Haitian President Jean Bertrand Aristide. It was accused of providing a cover for the training of a 600-member paramilitary army of anti-Aristide Haitians (see (2001-2004)).

Entity Tags: International Republican Institute

Timeline Tags: US confrontation with Iran

Through a unanimous all-party vote at its National Assembly, Quebec becomes the first government worldwide to approve the UNESCO Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions. The approval comes just three weeks after the landslide vote for the international convention at the UNESCO 33rd General Conference in Paris, France. The day’s favorable vote on the convention is marked as well by statements by leading officials of Quebec noting Quebec’s prime role in the formation of the UNESCO instrument, as well as how the convention boosts Quebec’s efforts to protect and promote its cultural industries. Deputy Premier and Minister of International Relations Monique Gagnon-Tremblay emphasizes Quebec’s important contribution to the “emergence of an international instrument of fundamental importance for the cultural sector, and over and beyond this, for the socio-economic development of all our peoples at the beginning of the 21st century.” Culture and Communications Minister Line Beauchamp ends her own statements by calling the adoption of the convention “a great day for Quebec culture,” adding: ”(T)he fundamental issue is the commitment of states to support their cultures through cultural policies that take the form of subsidies, tax credits, of regulatory policies.… We should be aware to what degree everyday life is shaped and affected by culture and artistic creations.… It is important to realize that the cultural policies I just described are behind the songs you hear on the radio, the television programs you watch, the books you read, your encounters with culture.” For his part, Claude Béchard, minister of economic development, innovation, and exports, stresses the convention “will serve as a tool of reference for states facing pressure to liberalize their cultural sectors by helping to legitimize at the international level their cultural policies.” Premier Jean Charest, meantime, highlights the close cooperation between Quebec and the federal government of Canada in building international support for the convention. Charest indicates again his government is determined to continue championing the convention internationally, and to continue supporting Canada’s Coalition for Cultural Diversity and Quebec’s leading cultural organizations in their work to mobilize cultural professionals around the world to support ratification. [Coalition Update, 11/2005]

Entity Tags: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Claude Béchard, Jean Charest, UNESCO Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions, Line Beauchamp, Monique Gagnon-Tremblay

Timeline Tags: Neoliberalism and Globalization

President Obama during his May 22, 2010 speech at West Point.President Obama during his May 22, 2010 speech at West Point. [Source: Potusphere (.com)]Michael Savage, a conservative radio host, tells his listeners that President Obama does not have the right to speak to the graduating class of the Army’s United States Military Academy at West Point, New York, and calls Obama “Little Mussolini,” after the Italian fascist dictator and ally of Adolf Hitler. Savage, referring to Obama’s May 22 speech to the graduating class of cadets, says Obama “slipped and gave himself away” during his speech, calls Obama “insecure” and “terrified,” and says Obama neither had the “right” nor the “honor to speak to the cadets,” and “is not qualified to speak to the cadets.” Obama, Savage says, “overcompensate[d]” during the speech by saying, “I have absolute power in some areas.” Savage then says: “That was to show the boys and the men at West Point who their boss was. It was ‘Little Mussolini,’ ‘Junior Doc’ Obama [referring to Haitian dictators ‘Papa Doc’ and ‘Baby Doc’ Duvalier], who told them in no uncertain terms: ‘Don’t you dare think that I am not in charge. I’ll show you.’” Savage goes on to say Obama has “a woman problem” that has something to do with “the peripatic nature of his mother during his upbringing,” and questions Obama’s loyalty to the United States, asking if his loyalities “lie here [in the US] or somewhere else.… We suspect [they do] not lie here in Washington, DC.” [Media Matters, 5/25/2010] The reference to “absolute power” is a joke Obama made at the beginning of his speech. He told the cadets: “As your superintendent indicated, under our constitutional system my power as president is wisely limited. But there are some areas where my power is absolute. And so, as your commander in chief, I hereby absolve all cadets who are on restriction for minor conduct offenses. I will leave the definition of ‘minor’ to those who know better.” Obama received applause and laughter from the cadets for the wisecrack. [CBS News, 5/22/2010] Savage has called the landmark civil rights decision Brown v. Board “sickening” (see May 18, 2004), accused Obama of being educated in a radical Islamic madrassa (see January 10, 2008 and April 3, 2008) and being a potential “radical Muslim” (see February 21, 2008), called Obama’s presidential victory “the first affirmative-action election in American history” (see February 1, 2008), accused Obama of being sympathetic towards the Nazis and the Imperial Japanese of World War II (see March 13, 2008), said that homeless Americans should be put in “work camps” (see June 6, 2008), called Obama an “Afro-Leninist” (see June 6, 2008), said that welfare recipients should lose the right to vote (see October 22, 2008), accused Obama of using his grandmother’s death to conceal his “efforts” to falsify his Hawaiian birth certificate (see November 10, 2008), accused Obama of planning to fire all the “competent white men” in government once he became president (see November 18, 2008), accused Obama of desiring his own “Hitler Youth” program (see September 2, 2009), compared Obama to Chinese Communist dictator Mao Zedong (see December 3, 2009), and compared Obama to mass murderer Pol Pot (see December 17, 2009).

Entity Tags: United States Military Academy, Barack Obama, Michael Savage

Timeline Tags: Domestic Propaganda

Software expert Jean-Claude Tremblay says there is no doubt President Obama’s “long form” birth certificate (see April 27, 2011) is genuine. Tremblay is responding to recent claims that the “layers” found in the electronic version of the certificate “prove” it is fake (see April 27, 2011 and April 27, 2011). Many of the claimants have used a graphics program, Adobe Illustrator, to reveal the layers. Tremblay is a certified Adobe expert who teaches Illustrator. He tells Fox News, “You should not be so suspicious about this.” The layers are evidence of the use of ordinary scanning software, not evidence of forgery: “I have seen a lot of Illustrator documents that come from photos and contain those kind of clippings—and it looks exactly like this.” Whoever scanned the birth certificate into a PDF file did so using commonly used OCR (optical character recognition) software, which translates characters or words into text, and creates “layers” of text in the process. “When you open it in Illustrator it looks like layers, but it doesn’t look like someone built it from scratch,” Tremblay says. “If someone made a fake it wouldn’t look like this. Some scanning software is trying to separate the background and the text and splitting element into layers and parts of layers.… I know that you can scan a document from a scanner most of the time it will appear as one piece, but that doesn’t mean that there’s no software that’s doing this kind of stuff.… I’d be more afraid it’d be fake if it was one in piece. It would be harder to check if it’s a good one if it’s a fake.” [Fox News, 4/29/2011]

Entity Tags: Barack Obama, Jean-Claude Tremblay, Fox News

Timeline Tags: Domestic Propaganda

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