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Context of 'October 2003: Red Cross Appalled by Abu Ghraib Conditions'

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Jamal Udeen, a British national of Jamaican descent, also known as Jamal al-Harith, and born Ronald Fiddler, allegedly on his way to Turkey, is arrested by the Taliban and locked up in a jail in Kandahar on suspicion of being a British spy. Udeen appears to be in real physical danger. A fellow prisoner, whom he suspects is an American, is beaten severely and dies. “I am sure I would have got the same treatment,” Udeen recalls, “but I made sure that every time my guards saw me I was praying.… The Taliban liked me because I always had the Koran in my hands. I was beaten very badly, but not as badly as most of the other inmates.” He later tells the Americans about the killed detainee. “They tried to say the man wasn’t an American, but I know he was.” [Mirror, 3/12/2004] Udeen and the other inmates are “praying for the Americans to come” and free them. [London Times, 3/11/2004]

Entity Tags: Jamal Udeen, Taliban

Timeline Tags: Torture of US Captives

Jamal Udeen, a British national of Jamaican descent who has been imprisoned since October (see October 2001), along with a handful of other non-Afghans, is left in a Kandahar prison when the Taliban leadership flees the advancing Northern Alliance troops. Having lost his passport, Udeen does not know how to leave the country. The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) visits the jail and asks him if he wants to go to Pakistan together with some Pakistanis who were also prisoners of the Taliban and who will be allowed to cross the border. But with “no money and no way of getting back to Britain,” Udeen decides to remain in Kandahar. [Mirror, 3/12/2004]

Entity Tags: Jamal Udeen

Timeline Tags: Torture of US Captives, War in Afghanistan

A Taliban fighter killed in the battle for Qala-i-Janghi fortress.A Taliban fighter killed in the battle for Qala-i-Janghi fortress. [Source: CNN/House of War]Amnesty International calls for an inquiry into the violence at Qala-i-Janghi. The organization states, “An urgent inquiry should look into what triggered this violent incident, including any shortcomings in the holding and processing of the prisoners, and into the proportionality of the response by United Front, US, and UK forces. It should make urgent recommendations to ensure that other instances of surrender and holding of prisoners do not lead to similar disorders and loss of life, and that the key role of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) in overseeing the processing and treatment of prisoners is facilitated.” [Amnesty International, 11/27/2001]

Entity Tags: Amnesty International

Timeline Tags: Torture of US Captives, War in Afghanistan

Taliban fighters killed in the battle for Qala-i-Janghi fortress.Taliban fighters killed in the battle for Qala-i-Janghi fortress. [Source: CNN/House of War]UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, Mary Robinson, joins Amnesty International (see November 27, 2001 and December 5, 2001) in a call for an investigation of killings at Qala-i-Jhangi. [Agence France-Presse, 12/1/2001]

Entity Tags: Mary Robinson

Timeline Tags: Torture of US Captives, War in Afghanistan

Amnesty International issues a second call for an inquiry “into the large-scale killing of captured Taliban fighters and others at a fort on the outskirts of Mazar-i Sharif.” Amnesty insists that the “events at the Qala-i-Jhanghi fort must not simply be brushed under the carpet, like so many other killings before them.” [Amnesty International, 12/5/2001]

Entity Tags: Amnesty International, Taliban

Timeline Tags: Torture of US Captives, War in Afghanistan

Tim Reid, a journalist from the London Times, visits the Kandahar city jail and meets with Jamal Udeen (see October 2001), formerly a prisoner of the Taliban, four times in one week. Udeen is still trying to find a way back to Britain. His four fellow inmates are a Russian from Tartarstan, two Saudi Arabians and a Syrian Kurd; all free to go, but waiting for an opportunity. Udeen tells Reid resolutely that he was not in Afghanistan to fight for the Taliban or al-Qaeda. “If I came here to fight, I wouldn’t have been thrown in prison,” he argues. “I travel all the time. That is all I was doing.” Reid later says: “I felt sure he was no terrorist. I even tried to get him released.” [London Times, 3/11/2004]

Entity Tags: Tim Reid, Jamal Udeen, Taliban

Timeline Tags: Torture of US Captives, War in Afghanistan

Six days after the first detainees have arrived from Afghanistan, representatives from the International Committee for the Red Cross (ICRC) visit Guantanamo. They meet with the prison commanders on January 21 and recommend a number of improvements. [Washington Post, 6/13/2004] The ICRC has noticed some restrictions on religious expression it objects to. During the first week of the prison’s operation, praying according to Islamic custom is not allowed or is at least prevented. When someone calls out the call to prayers, or Azzan, according to detainee Asif Iqbal, guards respond “by either silencing the person who was doing it, or, more frequently, play loud rock music to drown them out.” [Rasul, Iqbal, and Ahmed, 7/26/2004 pdf file] Notwithstanding the intercession by the ICRC, religious freedoms apparently continue to be restricted, as Mohammed Saghir, a grey-bearded sawmill owner, will later recall. “In the first one-and-a-half months they wouldn’t let us speak to anyone, wouldn’t let us call for prayers or pray in the room,” Saghir says. “I tried to pray and four or five commandos came and they beat me up. If someone would try to make a call for prayer they would beat him up and gag him.” [Guardian, 12/3/2003]

Entity Tags: Asif Iqbal, Mohammed Saghir

Timeline Tags: Torture of US Captives

Jamal Udeen, still stuck in Kandahar (see October 2001), stays in touch with the International Committee for the Red Cross (ICRC) and makes phone calls to the British Consulate, which assures him he will soon be put on a flight to Kabul and then sent back to Britain. [Mirror, 3/12/2004] Meanwhile, London Times reporter Tim Reid also speaks with the Red Cross, which tells him that Udeen can fly with him to Kabul. [London Times, 3/11/2004]

Entity Tags: Jamal Udeen, Tim Reid

Timeline Tags: Torture of US Captives

Two days after receiving assurances from the British Consulate that he would soon be returning home (see January 24, 2002), Jamal Udeen, who was imprisoned by the Taliban in October 2001, is taken by undercover CIA agents to the US air base at Kandahar airport. [London Times, 3/11/2004] Udeen later describes the air base as “a concentration camp,” with watchtowers and barbed wire. [Mirror, 3/12/2004] The next day, reporter Tim Reid, who was planning to accompany Udeen back to Britain, discovers he is too late. Udeen and four other foreign prisoners (see Early January, 2002) of the Taliban have been arrested and detained by US authorities. [London Times, 3/11/2004] Udeen and the other four prisoners will all end up at the Guantanamo facility in Cuba. Udeen will not be released until March 2004. [London Times, 3/11/2004]

Entity Tags: Tim Reid, Jamal Udeen

Timeline Tags: Torture of US Captives, War in Afghanistan

At Camp Bucca, a large detention camp at Umm Qasr near the Kuwaiti border (officially called the Bucca Theater Internment Facility), representatives from the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) witness a shooting incident resulting in the death of one prisoner and the wounding of another. [International Committee of the Red Cross, 2/2004]

Entity Tags: International Committee of the Red Cross

Timeline Tags: Torture of US Captives

The head of the delegation from the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) at Guantanamo states that the “seemingly open-ended detention” and the lack of a “clear legal framework” has had an “overall impact on the mental health of the prisoners.” [BBC Radio 4, 7/13/2003] “The uncertainty these detainees face as regards their legal status and their future does have a very adverse impact on their physical and mental well-being,” Red Cross spokeswoman Antonella Notaria says. “A lot of them are pushed to despair. It is a clear indication that these people are under extreme stress and anxiety.” [Guardian, 7/19/2003]

Entity Tags: Amnesty International, International Committee of the Red Cross

Timeline Tags: Torture of US Captives

Three detainees at Camp Bucca who volunteered for a cleaning job are severely injured when they inadvertently set off a cluster bomb. All three will have their legs amputated. [International Committee of the Red Cross, 2/24/2004 pdf file]

Timeline Tags: Torture of US Captives

A delegation from the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) interviews a 61-year-old Iraqi who has been imprisoned in Camp Bucca. The elderly man tells the ICRC that at the time of his arrest, he was “tied, hooded, and forced to sit on the hot surface of what he surmised to be the engine of a vehicle….” The ICRC verifies his account noting that the presence of “large crusted lesions” on his buttocks were consistent with his allegation. [International Committee of the Red Cross, 2/24/2004 pdf file]

Entity Tags: International Committee of the Red Cross

Timeline Tags: Torture of US Captives

A delegation from the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) visits Abu Ghraib prison in Baghdad and is appalled by the condition and treatment of the prisoners. The ICRC breaks “off [its] visit and [demands] an immediate explanation from the military prison authorities.” The delegation witnesses prisoners who are “completely naked in totally empty concrete cells and in total darkness.” According to its February 2004 report to Coalition Forces, “The military intelligence officer in charge of the interrogation explained that this practice was ‘part of the process.’” The ICRC subsequently complains to Coalition Forces. [New York Times, 5/11/2004; US Department of Defense, 8/23/2004 pdf file]

Entity Tags: International Committee of the Red Cross

Timeline Tags: Torture of US Captives

The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) writes a letter to Gen. Janis Karpinski in relation to a recent shooting incident (see September 22, 2003) at Camp Bucca and recommends that she takes appropriate measures. The same letter also asks her to investigate another incident that took place on September 3 (see September 3, 2003) at the same camp. In that incident, three detainees doing a voluntary cleaning job were severely injured when a cluster bomb went off. [International Committee of the Red Cross, 2/24/2004 pdf file]

Entity Tags: International Committee of the Red Cross, Janis L. Karpinski

Timeline Tags: Torture of US Captives

The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) complains in writing to Coalition Forces about the treatment of prisoners being held at Abu Ghraib prison (see October 2003). [US Department of the Army, 3/9/2004; New York Times, 5/11/2004; Associated Press, 5/16/2004; New York Times, 5/19/2004] The ICRC’s complaints are then discussed at high levels inside the Bush administration. “We knew that the ICRC had concerns, and in accordance with the matter in which the ICRC does its work, it presented those concerns directly to the command in Baghdad,” Powell will later recall on “Fox News Sunday.” “And I know that some corrective action was taken with respect to those concerns,” he adds. [Associated Press, 5/16/2004]

Entity Tags: International Committee of the Red Cross, Colin Powell

Timeline Tags: Torture of US Captives

Cell blocks 1A and 2A, where the infamous Abu Ghraib abuses take place.Cell blocks 1A and 2A, where the infamous Abu Ghraib abuses take place. [Source: CBC]The US military replies to the Red Cross’ November 6 letter (see November 6, 2003), claiming that the prisoners being held in cell bocks 1A and 2A of Abu Ghraib are “security detainees” who are not entitled to “full GC protection as recognized in GCIV/5 [Article 5 of the Fourth Geneva Convention].” The 3-page letter adds that “such protection will be afforded as soon as the security situation in Iraq allows it.” Article 5 allows an occupying power to exempt captives from the protection of the Conventions if they can be shown to be a continuing threat to the occupying force. However according to critics of the administration’s judgment, the provision is supposed to be applied on a case-by-case basis and is not meant to include people who have valuable intelligence. [US Department of the Army, 12/24/2003; New York Times, 5/22/2004] The letter also says that the Red Cross should schedule its visits to the cell bocks 1A and 2A ahead of time instead of showing up unannounced. The response letter—written by Army lawyers in Washington but signed by Army Brig. Gen. Janis Karpinski in Baghdad—claims that such visits could interrupt interrogations. [New York Times, 5/19/2004] In fact, many of the detainees in those cell blocks are not suspected to be security threats.

Entity Tags: Janis L. Karpinski, American Red Cross

Timeline Tags: Torture of US Captives

Jakob Kellenberger, president of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), meets with Secretary of State Colin Powell and says that the ICRC has “serious concerns about detainees in Iraq,” though according to a senior State Department official, he does not detail them. During his visit, Kellenberger also meets with Condoleezza Rice and, reportedly, with Deputy Defense Secretary Paul Wolfowitz, though it is unclear what precisely is discussed. White House Spokesman Sean McCormack will later say that “Iraq was not mentioned” during the meeting with Rice. Rather the main topic of discussion was Guantanamo, he says. [Observer, 5/9/2004; Baltimore Sun, 5/12/2004]

Entity Tags: Sean McCormack, Paul Wolfowitz, Colin Powell, Jakob Kellenberger, Condoleezza Rice

Timeline Tags: Torture of US Captives

The US restricts the International Committee of the Red Cross’s (ICRC) access to the Kandahar base, where there is a detention facility. “If Kandahar is being used as a detention facility and people are being detained there, we would expect to have access to them,” ICRC Kabul spokeswoman Jessica Barry says. [Reuters, 5/15/2004] Private non-profit organizations like Amnesty International also find it difficult or impossible to access US-run prisons in Afghanistan. “We have asked for access many times but in general there has been no response,” says Amnesty International’s Nazia Hussein, “so it is very difficult to determine what conditions are like.” [Guardian, 6/23/2004]

Entity Tags: International Committee of the Red Cross, Jessica Barry, Nazia Hussein

Timeline Tags: Torture of US Captives

In a confidential June 2004 report, the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) alleges that the techniques used at Guantanamo are “tantamount to torture.” According to the report, the system in place at Guantanamo is designed to break the will of detainees by making them totally dependent on their interrogators through “humiliating acts, solitary confinement, temperature extremes, use of forced positions.” In addition, the organization writes, detainees are subjected to “some beatings.” These methods, according to the ICRC, are increasingly “more refined and repressive” in comparison to what is observed during earlier missions. The report concludes: “The construction of such a system, whose stated purpose is the production of intelligence, cannot be considered other than an intentional system of cruel, unusual and degrading treatment and a form of torture.” [Neil A. Lewis, 11/30/2004]

Entity Tags: International Committee of the Red Cross

Timeline Tags: Torture of US Captives

Former detainees Shafiq Rasul, Asif Iqbal, and Rhuhel Ahmed release a “composite statement” describing in detail their experiences as detainees in Afghanistan and Guantanamo. [Rasul, Iqbal, and Ahmed, 7/26/2004 pdf file] Mark Jacobson, a former Defense Department official who worked on detainee issues in the office of Defense Secretary Donald H. Rumsfeld as part of the Detainee Policy Group, will call the report “a wonderful piece of propaganda” that mixes some truth with lies and misinterpretations. [Boston Globe, 8/5/2004]

Entity Tags: Asif Iqbal, Shafiq Rasul, Rhuhel Ahmed, Mark Jacobson

Timeline Tags: Torture of US Captives

In response to allegations (see July 26, 2004) made by the “Tipton Three”, Florian Westphal, spokesman of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), says: “Some of the abuses alleged by the detainees would indeed constitute inhuman treatment.… Inhuman treatment constitutes a grave breach of the Third Geneva Convention and these are often also described as war crimes.” [Guardian, 8/5/2004]

Entity Tags: Rhuhel Ahmed, Shafiq Rasul, Asif Iqbal, International Committee of the Red Cross

Timeline Tags: Torture of US Captives

An unnamed secret CIA prison in Kabul.An unnamed secret CIA prison in Kabul. [Source: Trevor Paglen]The New York Times reports the existence of a secret CIA detention facility housed in a hotel in the center of Kabul called the “Ariana.” It is off-limits to the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) and the number of detainees held there is unknown. A former Taliban commander, Mullah Rocketi, was reportedly detained there for eight months. He says conditions were reasonably comfortable and he was not mistreated. He was released in 2003 after making an undisclosed deal with his captors. Another Taliban leader detained at the Ariana since January 2004 is Jan Baz Khan, according to an anonymous US military commander. [New York Times, 9/17/2004]

Entity Tags: Jan Baz Khan, Mullah Rocketi, International Committee of the Red Cross

Timeline Tags: Torture of US Captives, War in Afghanistan

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