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The 2004 removal of Jean-Bertrand Aristide

The Opposition before Aristide's overthrow and the post-Aristide government

Project: 2004 Ousting of Jean-Bertrand Aristide
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Early 1990s: Haitian Trained by US

Haitian Guy Philippe is trained by US Special Forces in Ecuador. [Human Rights Watch, 2/27/2004; Miami Herald, 2/28/2004; Observer, 3/2/2004; One World, 3/2/2004]

Entity Tags: Guy Philippe

Category Tags: The opposition/post-Artistide gov't

In Haiti, the Front for the Advancement of Progress of the Haitian People (FRAPH) overthrows the government while Haitian President Jean-Bertrand Aristide is on a visit to the UN in New York. The group rules as a repressive military regime until 1994 when a US-led UN intervention puts Aristide back in power (see September 19, 1994-October 15, 1994) [Rogozinski, 1992; Observer, 3/2/2004] The junta is responsible for the massacre of hundreds—or by some estimates, thousands—of dissidents. [Turck, 2/24/2004; Observer, 3/2/2004; Jamaica Observer, 3/7/2004] The leader of the group is Emmanuel “Toto” Constant, who later acknowledges he had support from the CIA. “Emmanuel Constant is widely alleged, and himself claims, to have been in the pay of, and under the orders of, the US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) during the coup period,” Amnesty International will later report. The amount paid to Constant by the CIA during this period is $500/month. [Amnesty International, 2/7/1996; Center for Constitutional Rights, 2/18/2004; Observer, 3/2/2004; London Review of Books, 4/15/2004] Second in command is Louis-Jodel Chamblain, who had led death squads during the years of Jean-Claude “Baby Doc” Duvalier’s dictatorship and who is later convicted and implicated in multiple crimes committed during this period. [Observer, 3/2/2004; Jamaica Observer, 3/7/2004]

Entity Tags: Louis-Jodel Chamblain, Jean-Bertrand Aristide, Emmanuel “Toto” Constant

Timeline Tags: US-Haiti (1804-2005)

Category Tags: The opposition/post-Artistide gov't

Antoine Izmery, financier of Haitian President Jean-Claude Bertrand and a known pro-democracy advocate, is dragged from church during a mass, and executed. Louis-Jodel Chamblain is later convicted in absentia and sentenced to life imprisonment for the crime. [Human Rights Watch, 2/27/2004; Jamaica Observer, 3/7/2004; Amnesty International, 3/10/2004]

Entity Tags: Louis-Jodel Chamblain, Antoine Izmery, Jean-Bertrand Aristide

Category Tags: The opposition/post-Artistide gov't

Haitian Justice Minister Guy Malary and his bodyguard are killed in an ambush. According to a CIA memorandum, dated October 28, 1993, which will later be obtained by the Center for Constitutional Rights, “FRAPH members Jodel Chamblain, Emmanuel Constant, and Gabriel Douzable met with an unidentified military officer on the morning of 14 October to discuss plans to kill Malary.” According to the Center, “Constant at the time was a paid CIA informant, earning $500 a month.” [Center for Constitutional Rights, 2/18/2004; Human Rights Watch, 2/27/2004]

Entity Tags: Emmanuel “Toto” Constant, Louis-Jodel Chamblain

Category Tags: The opposition/post-Artistide gov't

On April 18 and 22, 1994, members of the Haitian Armed Forces and the paramilitary Front for the Advancement and Progress of Haiti (FRAPH) enter the coastal slum of Raboteau on the outskirts of the city of Gonaives. They break into “dozens of homes, beating, and arresting those they found inside,” the BBC will recount several years later. Several of the victims are “tortured on site” and “forced to lie in open sewers” while others are shot as they try to escape. [Jamaica Observer, 3/7/2004; BBC, 10/4/2004; Center for Justice and Accountability, 1/10/2005] Between two dozen and one hundred deaths are attributed to the Raboteau Massacre. The number will remain undetermined, however, because the attackers kill many who are fleeing in boats and whose bodies fall into the sea. Additionally, the killers toss several bodies of people killed on the land also into the ocean. Days later, mutilated bodies wash back to shore. [St. Petersburg Times, 9/1/2002; Amnesty International, 3/10/2004; Center for Justice and Accountability, 1/10/2005] Among those who will be convicted for the atrocity are Louis-Jodel Chamblain and Jean Pierre Baptiste. [Human Rights Watch, 2/27/2004; Jamaica Observer, 3/7/2004; Amnesty International, 3/10/2004; BBC, 10/4/2004; Center for Justice and Accountability, 1/10/2005]

Entity Tags: Louis-Jodel Chamblain, Jean Pierre Baptiste, “Jean Tatoune”

Category Tags: The opposition/post-Artistide gov't

(September 1994): Chamblain Flees Haiti

FRAPH deputy leader Louis-Jodel Chamblain escapes to the Dominican Republic when the US military intervenes in Haiti to return Jean-Bertrand Aristide to power. [Human Rights Watch, 2/27/2004]

Entity Tags: Louis-Jodel Chamblain

Category Tags: The opposition/post-Artistide gov't

The United States-led Multinational Force (MNF) searches the FRAPH office in Port-au-Prince and removes 60,000 pages of documents, mostly in French, which are given to the US. [Amnesty International, 2/7/1996; John Pike, 4/21/2001]

Category Tags: The opposition/post-Artistide gov't

Haitian authorities put warrants out for the arrest of FRAPH leaders Emmanuel “Toto” Constant and his deputy, Louis Jodel Chamblain who are wanted for their involvement in human rights violations that occurred during the previous three-year period of military rule. Emmanuel Constant flees to the United States. [Amnesty International, 2/7/1996]

Entity Tags: Louis-Jodel Chamblain, Emmanuel “Toto” Constant

Category Tags: The opposition/post-Artistide gov't

1995: Philippe Joins Haiti Police

Guy Philippe joins the new Haitian National Police and is posted at Ouanamithe near Haiti’s northern border with the Dominican Republic. [Human Rights Watch, 2/27/2004; Miami Herald, 2/28/2004]

Entity Tags: Guy Philippe

Category Tags: The opposition/post-Artistide gov't

Haiti’s government and lawyers for Alerte Belance, a Haitian woman who was assaulted by FRAPH forces during the coup period (see October 31, 1991), seek the FRAPH documents (see (Late October 1994)) from the US. But the US Defense Department refuses to provide them, saying the papers are classified and must first be reviewed before being released. The Haitian government wants to use the documents as evidence in the prosecution of FRAPH members and Belance’s attorneys have subpoenaed them for use as evidence in a lawsuit against FRAPH member Emmanuel Constant who is living openly in the USA, and who has admitted being a paid CIA asset during the FRAPH’s period of military rule in Haiti (see October 14, 1993). Belance’s lawyers say the documents could contain important information about FRAPH’s financing, their weapons, and the crimes they are accused of having committed. In October 1996, the US sends documents to Port-au-Prince, but the Haitian government refuses them on grounds that they are incomplete. [Inter Press Service, 10/10/1995; Amnesty International, 2/7/1996; Amnesty International, 2/7/1996]

Entity Tags: Emmanuel “Toto” Constant, Alerte Belance

Category Tags: The opposition/post-Artistide gov't

Guy Philippe serves as police chief in the Port-au-Prince suburb of Delmas. According to Human Rights Watch, “dozens of suspected gang members… [are] summarily executed, mainly by police under the command of Inspector Berthony Bazile, Philippe’s deputy.” Philippe will later deny the allegation in an interview with the Miami Herald. [Human Rights Watch, 2/27/2004; Miami Herald, 2/28/2004]

Entity Tags: Berthony Bazile, Guy Philippe

Category Tags: The opposition/post-Artistide gov't

After being postponed three times during the last seven months, Haitian parliamentary and local elections are finally held with a turnout of about 60 percent. Voters must fill some 7,625 posts in the legislature, mayoral commissions, and local and rural councils that were made vacant in January 1999, when the congress and local offices were disbanded by President Rene Preval (see January 1999). The Lavalas party of Jean-Bertrand Aristide wins the elections by a landslide, winning 15 of the 19 contested Senate seats and some 80 percent of the seats in the House of Assembly. However the results are challenged by the opposition, the US, and the Organization of American States, which say that Haiti’s electoral council did not use the proper formula to calculate the votes. As a result of the controversy, the opposition will boycott the June 9 run-off elections (see July 9, 2000) as well as the presidential elections in November (see November 2000). More significantly, aid donors threaten that they will continue to withhold $500 million in aid if the government does not come to an agreement with the opposition. [BBC, 5/22/2000; BBC, 5/22/2000; BBC, 5/30/2000; BBC, 7/8/2000; BBC, 7/14/2000; CBS News, 11/29/2000; Associated Press, 12/7/2000; US Department of State, 2/23/2001; Dollars and Sense, 9/7/2003; Turck, 2/24/2004; CounterPunch, 3/1/2004; Taipei Times, 3/1/2004]

Entity Tags: Jean-Bertrand Aristide, Rene Preval

Category Tags: The opposition/post-Artistide gov't

Political groups opposed to the party of Jean-Bertrand Aristide form the Democratic Convergence, a coalition made up of roughly 200 groups, which is headed by former Port-au-Prince mayor Evans Paul, a previous Aristide supporter and leader of the Convention for Democratic Unity. [Boston Globe, 2/14/2004; Turck, 2/24/2004] The Convergence is a product of the USAID program, “Democracy Enhancement,” the purpose of which is to “fund those sectors of the Haitian political spectrum where opposition to the Aristide government could be encouraged.” Financial support for the Convergence comes from the International Republican Institute (IRI), which is associated with the US government-funded National Endowment for Democracy. The IRI receives about $3 million annually from Congress, as well as millions more from private Haitian and US interests. The organization’s board includes a number of “current or former Republican Party officials, Republican officeholders, or members of Republican administrations.” The IRI’s activities in Haiti are not completely understood and Roger Noriega, the US permanent representative to the Organization of American States, has always refused to elaborate on the organization’s work in Haiti. [Z Magazine, 7/1994; Boston Globe, 2/14/2004; Turck, 2/24/2004; Interhemispheric Resource Center, 2/27/2004; CounterPunch, 3/1/2004]

Entity Tags: Roger Francisco Noriega, US Congress, USAID, Jean-Bertrand Aristide, National Endowment for Democracy, Evans Paul, International Republican Institute, Democratic Convergence

Category Tags: The opposition/post-Artistide gov't

The prime minister of Haiti says that Guy Philippe and others are planning to overthrow the Aristide government. Philippe and the other plotters flee across the Dominican border before they can be arrested. [Human Rights Watch, 2/27/2004; Miami Herald, 2/28/2004]

Entity Tags: Guy Philippe, Jean-Bertrand Aristide

Category Tags: The opposition/post-Artistide gov't

Jean-Bertrand Aristide runs unopposed in Haiti’s presidential elections and wins with 91.5 percent of the vote. The opposition Democratic Convergence party does not participate in the elections in protest of the May 21, 2000 congressional and municipal elections (see May 21, 2000) which its members claim were rigged. The election turnout is disputed. Though some news agencies report a low turnout of between 5 percent and 10 percent, Aristide’s party, as well as five US-based NGOs—Global Exchange, the Quixote Center, Witness for Peace, and Pax Christi—estimate the figure at 61 percent, or 3 million of Haiti’s voters. [BBC, 7/7/2000; CBS News, 11/29/2000; Associated Press, 12/7/2000; Global Exchange, 2001; Dollars and Sense, 9/7/2003; Turck, 2/24/2004; CounterPunch, 3/1/2004; Z Magazine, 5/5/2004] These figures are also supported by USAID-commissioned Gallup polls taken both before and after the elections, but which are suppressed by the US. [Z Magazine, 5/5/2004]

Entity Tags: Democratic Convergence, Jean-Bertrand Aristide, USAID

Timeline Tags: US-Haiti (1804-2005)

Category Tags: The opposition/post-Artistide gov't

Seven of the eight Haitian senators, whose elections are still being disputed by the Democratic Convergence (see May 21, 2000), resign after President Jean-Bertrand Aristide tells the General Assembly of the Organization of American States that he will hold new elections for the contested Senate seats within six months. But the Democratic Convergence is not satisfied with the concession and maintains its insistence that he resign and that it be put in charge of a non-elected “transition” government. [BBC, 6/8/2001; Dollars and Sense, 9/7/2003; Turck, 2/24/2004]

Entity Tags: Jean-Bertrand Aristide, Democratic Convergence

Category Tags: The opposition/post-Artistide gov't

A USAID-commissioned Gallup poll indicates that 61.6 percent of the survey’s participants sympathize or are members of Aristide’s Fanmi Lavalas party, while only 13 percent say they support the Democratic Convergence or any of its associated parties. Sixty percent of the respondents indicate that the Haitian leader they trust most is Aristide, though several say they trust no one. Democratic Convergence leader Gerard Gourgue, with only 3.7 percent, is the next most trusted politician. [Z Magazine, 5/5/2004]

Entity Tags: USAID, Gerard Gourgue, Jean-Bertrand Aristide

Category Tags: The opposition/post-Artistide gov't

The Haiti Democracy Project (HDP) is formally established. At its official launching, which takes place at the Brookings Institution in Washington, D.C., speakers warn that the current “crisis” in democracy in Haiti is worsening at an ever increasing pace. “… Luigi Einaudi opened the talks with dire predictions that Haiti was fast approaching a point where diplomatic means would no longer contribute to solve the crisis. According to Einaudi, those concerned about Haiti should at this time be gathering for a ‘wake.’ The rapidly deteriorating economic situation, the inability of the main protagonists to advance the negotiating process and the increasing protest demonstrations throughout the country made for a very bleak future.” US ambassador to the OAS, Roger Noriega also speaks at the ceremony. At one point, Noriega says, referring to the contested 2000 Haitian elections (see May 21, 2000), “We have to get them [The Haitian people] that opportunity as they will not participate in a farce.” [Haiti Democracy Project, 11/20/2004] Attending the event are some questionable figures including Stanley Lucas and Olivier Nadal. Lucas is said to be the point man in Haiti for the USAID-financed International Republican Institute, which is providing training and funds to anti-Aristide Haitian rebels in the Dominican Republic (see (2001-2004)). Nadal is a Miami-based Haitian businessman and the former president of the Haitian Chamber of Commerce. [Haiti Democracy Project, 11/20/2004] Nadal is implicated in a peasant massacre that occurred in the Haitian town of Piatre. In 1990, a group of peasants were killed by Nadal’s security after they squatted on unused land that he owned. [Haiti Progres, 7/21/1999; National Coalition for Haitian Rights, 4/24/2004] The prominent businessman Antoine Izmery said shortly before he was murdered that Nadal had been one of the financiers of the 1991 coup d’etat (see October 31, 1991) that ousted Aristide from office. And in 1994, the United States government froze Nadal’s assets because of his suspected involvement in the coup. [Haiti Progres, 7/21/1999] The Haiti Democracy Project is funded by the wealthy, right-wing Haitian Boulos family, which owns several companies including Pharval Pharmaceuticals, the USAID-funded Radio Vision 2000, the Delimart supermarket, and Le Matin. In February 2002, Rudolph Boulos was under investigation for his possible involvement in the assassination of Haitian journalist Jean Dominique who had been very critical of Pharval after contamination of the company’s “Afrebril and Valodon” syrups with diethyl alcohol had resulted in the deaths of 60 children. [Haiti Progres, 7/21/1999; Haiti Weekly News, 2/28/2002; Knight Ridder, 3/11/2004; Haiti Democracy Project, 11/20/2004] The project’s board of directors includes Rudolph Boulos, CEO of Pharval Laboratories; Vicki Carney of CRInternational; Prof. Henry F. Carey of Georgia State University; Timothy Carney, US ambassador to Haiti (1998-1999); Clotilde Charlot, former vice-president of the Haitian Association of Voluntary Agencies; Lionel Delatour of the Center for Free Enterprise and Democracy (CLED); Ira Lowenthal, an “Anthropologist”; Charles Manus; Orlando Marville, Chief of the OAS electoral mission to Haiti in 2000; James Morrell, the Haiti Democracy Project’s executive director; Lawrence Pezzullo, US special envoy for Haiti (1993-1994); and Ernest H. Preeg, US ambassador to Haiti (1981-1983). [Haiti Democracy Project, 3/26/2004]

Entity Tags: Luigi Einaudi, Lionel Delatour, Orlando Marville, Roger Francisco Noriega, Stanley Lucas, Vicki Carney, Timothy Carney, Lawrence Pezzullo, Rudolph Boulos, Jean-Bertrand Aristide, Olivier Nadal, James Morrell, Antoine Izmery, Charles Manus, Ernest H. Preeg, Clotilde Charlot, Henry F. Carey, Ira Lowenthal, Jean Dominique, Haiti Democracy Project

Category Tags: The opposition/post-Artistide gov't, Foreign involvement

The “Coalition of 184 Civic Institutions” is established. It is comprised of Haitian NGOs funded by USAID and/or the International Republican Institute (IRI), the Haitian-American Chamber of Commerce, as well as several other groups. [Dollars and Sense, 9/7/2003] The coalition’s leader is Andre Apaid, a US citizen born to Haitian parents who is the head of Alpha Industries, “one of the oldest and largest assembly factories in Haiti.” His factories—located in Haiti’s free trade zones—produce textiles and assemble electronic products for several US companies, including Sperry/Unisys, IBM, Remington and Honeywell, some of which are used in US Government computers and US Defense Department sonar and radar equipment. According to a report by the National Labor Committee, Apaid’s businesses are known to have forced their employees to work 78-hour work-weeks at wages below the minimum rate. [Kernaghan, 1/1996; Haiti Progres, 11/12/2003; London Review of Books, 4/15/2004]

Entity Tags: International Republican Institute, USAID, Haiti Democracy Project, Andre Apaid

Timeline Tags: US-Haiti (1804-2005)

Category Tags: The opposition/post-Artistide gov't, Foreign involvement

Stanley Lucas, who is the point man in Haiti for the Republican-dominated International Republican Institute (IRI) based in the Dominican Republic, meets with Haitian rebel Guy Philippe and his men. Three months later the group will cross into Haiti and attack a hydroelectric power plant. Lucas has long ties to the Haitian military (see Early May 2003). After the toppling of Aristide’s government 12 months later, it will be learned that the group had been funded and trained through the IRI (see (2001-2004)). [Interhemispheric Resource Center, 2/27/2004; Newsday, 3/16/2004]

Entity Tags: Stanley Lucas, Guy Philippe, International Republican Institute

Timeline Tags: US-Haiti (1804-2005)

Category Tags: The opposition/post-Artistide gov't, Foreign involvement

A group of at least 20 paramilitary soldiers—trained and funded by the US (see (2001-2004)) —cross into Haiti from the neighboring Dominican Republic and attack a hydroelectric power plant on Haiti’s central plateau. Shortly after the attack, Dominican authorities, at the behest of the Haitian government, arrest five men, including Guy Philippe, in connection with the paramilitary operation. But they are quickly released by the Dominicans who say there is no evidence of their involvement in the attack. Philippe is interviewed by the Associated Press afterwards and asked what he is doing in the Dominican. Philippe, who mentions to the reporter that he would support a coup against Aristide, refuses to “say how he makes a living or what he does to spend his time in the Dominican Republic.” Less than one year later, Philippe will participate in the overthrow of the Aristide government. [Black Commentator, 5/15/2003] On the same day the five men are detained, Haitian authorities raid the Port-au-Prince residence of mayoral candidate Judith Roy of the Democratic Convergence opposition. The Haitians claim to find “assault weapons, ammunitions, and plans to attack the National Palace and Aristide’s suburban residence.” The Haitian government contends that Roy is close to Philippe. [Black Commentator, 5/15/2003]

Entity Tags: Judith Roy, Democratic Convergence, Guy Philippe

Category Tags: The opposition/post-Artistide gov't, Foreign involvement

Dominican police arrest five Haitians, including Arcelin Paul, the official Democratic Convergence representative in the Dominican Republic, who they believe are plotting the overthrow of Jean-Bertrand Aristide’s government. Also at this time, there is a US build-up along the Dominican border, where “900 US soldiers patrol jointly with the Dominican army, whom they have armed with 20,000 M16s.” Ben Dupuy, general secretary of the left-wing party PPN, tells the left-wing Haiti Progres, “There is no doubt these guys are true terrorists working with the CIA under Dominican protection.” Documentary filmmaker Kevin Pina, who has been covering Haiti for over a decade, calls this the “US funding of the Haitian ‘Contras.’” A September 2003 article in the magazine, Dollars and Sense, will comment: “Whatever we call them, there is an organized and well-funded armed group with ties to the Convergence, based in the Dominican Republic, which aims to overthrow the Aristide government. The Bush administration’s support for the Convergence and its refusal to denounce this violence, as well as the US military presence along the border, through which the ‘Manman’ army easily travels, clearly implicates the United States in this aim.” [Dollars and Sense, 9/7/2003]

Entity Tags: Jean-Bertrand Aristide, Arcelin Paul, Democratic Convergence, Ben Dupuy

Timeline Tags: US-Haiti (1804-2005)

Category Tags: The opposition/post-Artistide gov't

January 2004: Haitian Legislature Lapses

The terms of all Haitian legislators elected in 2000 expire. The Democratic Convergence refuses to allow new congressional elections, so Haiti at this time no longer has a legislature. [Turck, 2/24/2004]

Entity Tags: Democratic Convergence

Category Tags: The opposition/post-Artistide gov't

Seventy wealthy Haitians and Haitian-Americans officially launch Haiti’s first investment bank, PromoCapital. The bank, a 50/50 joint-venture between Haitian and US shareholders, consists of two institutions: PromoCapital Haiti, SA—incorporated in Haiti as a “Societe Financiere de Developpement” —and PromoCapital USA, Inc,—a corporation registered in the state of Delaware. [PromoCapital, 4/2/2004; USA Today, 4/29/2004] The bank’s headquarters are in Petionville, Haiti with representative offices in Washington, DC, and Aventura, Florida. [PromoCapital, 4/2/2004; USA Today, 4/29/2004] Its founder, Dumarsais Simeus, who owns a large food-processing business in Texas, says the bank’s investors hope to see annual returns on their investment in the mid- or high teens. He is also the chair of PromoCapital USA. Henri Deschamps, a prominent Port-au-Prince printing and media executive, is the chairman of PromoCapital Haiti. [PromoCapital, 4/2/2004; USA Today, 4/29/2004] Of the 70 names included on the list of PromoCapital shareholders, nine—Frederic Madsen, Gilbert Bigio, Gregory Brandt, Marc-Antoine Acra, Monique Bigio, Olivier Acra, Ronald Georges, Reuven Bigi, and Sebastien Acra—appear on a US Treasury Department list of people and organizations whose assets had been blocked by the US Department of Treasury, Office of Foreign Assets Control under the Clinton Administration, until 1994. [US Department of the Treasury, 1994] And one of them, Hans Tippenhauer, had told The Washington Post on February 23 that the Haitians had enthusiastically greeted the paramilitary rebel forces as “freedom fighters.” [Washington Post, 2/24/2004]

Entity Tags: Michael Gay Sr., Monique Bigio, Josseline Colimon-Féthière, May Parisien, Olivier Acra, Nadege Tippenhauer, Marc-Antoine Acra, Laurence Bigio, Laurent Pierre-Philippe, Joelle Coupaud, Joseph Baptiste, Julio Bateau, Kimberly Simeus, Patrice Backer, Magdalah Silva, Patrick Delatour, PromoCapital, Patrick Tardieu, Steeve Handal, The Simeus Foundation, Vanessa Dickey, Yael Bigio-Garoute, Yves Joseph, Serge Pinard, Serge Parisien, Sebastien Acra, Régynald Heurtelou, Jerry Tardieu, Reginald Villard, Patrick Moynihan, Reuven Bigio, Rudolph Berrouët, Rudolph Moise, Ronald Georges, Jean-Robert Vertus, Jon Robertson, Jean-Marie Wolff, Elda James, Esq., Elisabeth Delatour, Emile Corneille, Emmanuel Francois, Florence Bellande Robertson, Jean-Pierre Saint-Victor, Frantz Bourget, Dimy Doresca, Daniel Silva, Albert Levy, Axan Abellard, Carlet Auguste, Caroline Racine, Daniel Rouzier, Daniele Jean-Pierre, Esq., Fred Tony, Dumarsais M. Siméus, Fritz Fougy, Henri Deschamps, Hendrik Verwaay, Henry Paul, Jacques Deschamps Fils, Herve Francois, Jean-Henry Céant, Harriet Michel, Gregory Brandt, Gabrielle Alexis, Esq., Gary Jean-Baptiste, Hans Tippenhauer, Frederic Madsen, Gerd Pasquet, Gilbert Bigio, Georges J. Casimir

Category Tags: The opposition/post-Artistide gov't, Economic policy, foreign interference

In Washington, there is an anti-Aristide demonstration sponsored by the Haiti Democracy Project. Several hundred protesters, including many Haitian Americans and recent exiles, attend the event. Many of the demonstrators arrive in buses from New York and Boston. [Miami Herald, 1/30/2004]

Entity Tags: Democratic Convergence, Jean-Bertrand Aristide

Category Tags: The opposition/post-Artistide gov't, The overthrow of Aristide

Comite des Avocats pour le Respect des Libertes Individuelles (CARLI), a Haitian “human rights” organization, compiles a list with the names of about 85 alleged human rights violators, all of which belong to either the Lavalas party or to the Haitian National Police. The names come from phone calls made to their “hotline” and possibly from other leads as well. CARLI issues leaflets containing the names to the public, calling for their arrest. The leaflets—published only in French, not Creole—are also given to the US embassy and USAID, which sponsors the hotline program. It is unclear whether or not CARLI—whose staff consists of only two volunteer lawyers—investigates and confirms the allegations before it publicizes the names of the condemned (see February 29, 2004). The accused are never contacted to respond to the charges. People named on the list flee their homes and go into hiding, fearing that the rebel paramilitary groups will come after them. They later tell a National Lawyers Guild human rights delegation that they were not guilty of the charges and that the list had been used as a political ploy by the opposition to instill fear. The delegation also interviews CARLI’s two lawyers and uncovers strong evidence suggesting that the organization is a tool of the opposition (see February 29, 2004). [Griffin, 4/11/2004 pdf file]

Entity Tags: Tom Griffin, USAID, National Committee for Haitian Rights (NCHR), Edward Carlson, March 2004 National Lawyers Guild Human Rights Delegation to Haiti, Judy DaCruz

Category Tags: The opposition/post-Artistide gov't

Guy Philippe tells the Miami Herald during an interview conducted in Cap Haitein, Haiti, that the man he admires most is former Chilean dictator Gen. Augusto Pinochet. “Pinochet made Chile what it is,” the 35-year-old rebel says. Philippe adds that US President Ronald Reagan is his next favorite. [Miami Herald, 2/28/2004; One World, 3/2/2004; Jamaica Observer, 3/7/2004]

Entity Tags: Augusto Pinochet, Ronald Reagan, Roger Francisco Noriega

Category Tags: The opposition/post-Artistide gov't, The overthrow of Aristide

With the removal of Haitian President Jean-Bertrand Aristide, Boniface Alexandre, chief justice of the Supreme Court, is sworn in as president at the home of Prime Minister Yvon Neptune, in conformance with Haiti’s constitutional rite of succession. The ceremony is attended by US Ambassador James Foley. However without a parliament (see January 2004), his appointment cannot be approved as required by Haiti’s 1987 Constitution. [Reuters, 2/29/2004; New York Times, 2/29/2004; Miami Herald, 3/1/2004]

Entity Tags: Boniface Alexandre, Jean-Bertrand Aristide, James Foley

Category Tags: The opposition/post-Artistide gov't, Foreign involvement

Haitian police abandon their posts in Le Cayes, Haiti, and flee approaching paramilitary rebel forces. 30-year-old “Ti Gary” steps in to fill the power vacuum, making himself the town’s law enforcer. He will order at least 5 public extra-judiciary executions. [Griffin, 4/11/2004 pdf file]

Entity Tags: Ti Gary

Category Tags: The opposition/post-Artistide gov't

In the Haitian town of Petit Goave, “Ti Kenley” and his followers burn the homes of Aristide supporters, including the homes of the national congress deputy, local elected political and civic leaders, student leaders, and family members of Aristide supporters. The burned homes are later photographed by a National Lawyers Guild human rights delegation (see March 29, 2004-April 5, 2004). [Griffin, 4/11/2004 pdf file Sources: Unnamed witnesses interviewed by a National Lawyers Guild human rights delegation]

Entity Tags: Tom Griffin, Ti Kenley, Edward Carlson, March 2004 National Lawyers Guild Human Rights Delegation to Haiti, Judy DaCruz

Category Tags: The opposition/post-Artistide gov't

The new Haitian government halts funding and other support to Haiti’s popular organizations (“OPs”) which oversee literacy programs, food and shelter programs, and orphanages. [Griffin, 4/11/2004 pdf file]

Category Tags: The opposition/post-Artistide gov't, Economic policy, foreign interference

Throughout Haiti, supporters of former president Jean-Bertrand Aristide and leaders of popular organizations (“OPs”) are hunted down, arrested, and sometimes beaten and killed by the new government’s police and by remnants of the paramilitary rebel forces. In order to avoid this persecution, many Aristide supporters go into hiding, either in Port-au-Prince, or in the mountains, taking their spouses and children with them. In many cases, their homes, left vacant, are burned to the ground by opposition forces. Leaders of popular organizations who seek asylum at the embassies of the United States, Mexico, Canada, France, and Venezuela, are turned away. The multinational coalition’s forces—consisting of some 3,600 US, Canadian, French, and Chilean troops—reportedly limit their patrolling to Haiti’s capital, Port-au-Prince, thus providing no security in other cities or the outlying areas. [Jamaica Observer, 3/28/2004; CNN, 4/9/2004; Griffin, 4/11/2004 pdf file; Democracy Now!, 4/12/2004; Brattleboro Reformer, 4/30/2004]

Category Tags: The opposition/post-Artistide gov't

Amnesty International releases a statement calling on the US-led force in Haiti to prevent the paramilitary leaders from taking power. The organization makes the following demands: [Amnesty International, 3/3/2004]
bullet “The MIF must take urgent steps to guarantee that notorious human rights offenders with pending sentences for human rights convictions, and those facing indictments on human rights grounds, are taken into custody and brought before the Haitian justice system. Escapees must be returned to prison; those perpetrators convicted in absentia have the opportunity for a retrial, under Haitian law, and should be held in custody until the retrial occurs.” [Amnesty International, 3/3/2004]
bullet “The MIF must take immediate steps to disarm the rebel groups and armed pro-government gangs, to minimize the risks of ongoing human rights abuses.” [Amnesty International, 3/3/2004]
bullet “The international community must as a matter of priority ensure that under no circumstances are those convicted of or implicated in serious human rights abuses given any position of authority, whether in a transitional government or among the security forces, where they might commit further violations.” [Amnesty International, 3/3/2004]
bullet “The Multinational Interim Force (MIF) must take urgent steps to ensure that the safety of all police and justice officials, witnesses, and human rights defenders involved in bringing the individuals named in this report to justice is guaranteed.” [Amnesty International, 3/3/2004]
bullet “The MIF must take steps to protect police and judicial records relating to past human rights abuses.” [Amnesty International, 3/3/2004]
bullet “No amnesty for past or recent human rights abuses can be permitted.” [Amnesty International, 3/3/2004]
bullet “In the longer term, the international community must assist the Haitian justice system so that it can bring to justice all of those accused of involvement in human rights violations.” [Amnesty International, 3/3/2004]

Category Tags: The opposition/post-Artistide gov't

A Tripartite Council is formed in accordance with Organization of American States resolutions CP/Res. 861 (February 19, 2004), CP/Res. 862 (February 26, 2004) and UN resolution S/1529 (February 29, 2004). Selected to serve on the council are Leslie Voltaire, Minister of Haitians Living Abroad; Paul Denis, Democratic Convergence spokesman; and Adamo Guino, UN Resident Coordinator in Haiti. The council is charged with the task of selecting a seven-member Council of Sages (see March 4, 2004). [Inter-American Institute of Human Rights, 3/4/2004; Haiti Info, 4/6/2004]

Entity Tags: Paul Denis, Adamo Guino, Leslie Voltaire

Category Tags: The opposition/post-Artistide gov't

Haitian President Boniface Alexandre appoints Leon Charles, former commander of the Haitian Coast Guard, as Director General of the Haitian National Police. [US Department of State, 3/19/2004]

Entity Tags: Boniface Alexandre, Leon Charles

Category Tags: The opposition/post-Artistide gov't

A Tripartite Council (see March 4, 2004) meets and selects a seven-member Council of Sages. It chooses Lamartine Clermont, Catholic Church; Ariel Henry, Democratic Convergence; Anne-Marie Issa, director-general of Signal FM Radio; Mac Donald Jean, Anglican Church; Danielle Magliore, director of ENFOFANM; Christian Rousseau, University administrator (previously involved in opposition student protests); and Paul Emile Simon, Fanmil Lavalas (party of Aristide government). [Fire, 1999; Agence France-Presse, 1/7/2004; Inter-American Institute of Human Rights, 3/4/2004; US Department of State, 3/19/2004; Haiti Info, 4/6/2004]

Entity Tags: Mac Donald Jean, Leslie Voltaire, Paul Denis, Paul Emile Simon, Danielle Magliore, Lamartine Clermont, Christian Rousseau, Adamo Guino, Ariel Henry, Anne-Marie Issa

Category Tags: The opposition/post-Artistide gov't

The bodies of 800 Haitians are “dumped and buried” by the State Morgue in Port-au-Prince, which typically buries only about 100 bodies per month. The corpses are buried in a mass grave 200 miles north of the capital in Titanye. On March 28, the morgue buries another 200 bodies (see March 28, 2004). Many of the “bodies… had their hands tied behind their backs and had black bags over their heads, and had been shot.” This continues in April (see Early April 2004). [Griffin, 4/11/2004 pdf file; Democracy Now!, 4/12/2004 Sources: Director of the State Morgue in Port-au-Prince]

Category Tags: The opposition/post-Artistide gov't

Congresswoman Barbara Lee (D-CA) of the Congressional Black Caucus Haiti Task Force Co-Chair introduces the TRUTH (The Responsibility to Uncover the Truth about Haiti) Act, calling for an independent bipartisan commission to investigate the circumstances of the toppling of Jean-Bertrand Aristide’s government. The bill, H.R. 3919, is co-sponsored by CBC Haiti Task Force Co-Chair John Conyers (D-MI) and 23 other members of the House. “The Bush administration’s efforts in the overthrow of a democratically-elected government must be investigated,” says Lee. “All of the evidence brought forward thus far suggests that the Administration has, in essence, carried out a form of ‘regime change,’ a different variation than it took in Iraq, but still regime change. The American people and the international community deserve to know the truth, and this bill will offer the opportunity to investigate the long term origins of the overthrow of the Haitian government and the impact of our failure to protect democracy.” The bill seeks to answer 6 specific questions. [Office of Representative Barbara Lee, 3/9/2004; US Congress, 3/9/2004 pdf file]
bullet “Did the US Government impede democracy and contribute to the overthrow of the Aristide government?” [Office of Representative Barbara Lee, 3/9/2004]
bullet “Under what circumstances did President Jean-Bertrand Aristide resign, and what was the role of the United States Government in bringing about his departure?” [Office of Representative Barbara Lee, 3/9/2004]
bullet “To what extent did the US impede efforts by the international community, particularly the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) countries, to prevent the overthrow of the democratically-elected Government of Haiti?” [Office of Representative Barbara Lee, 3/9/2004]
bullet “What was the role of the United States in influencing decisions regarding Haiti at the United Nations Security Council and in discussions between Haiti and other countries that were willing to assist in the preservation of the democratically-elected Government of Haiti by sending security forces to Haiti?” [Office of Representative Barbara Lee, 3/9/2004]
bullet “Was US assistance provided or were US personnel involved in supporting, directly or indirectly, the forces opposed to the government of President Aristide?” [Office of Representative Barbara Lee, 3/9/2004]
bullet “Was US bilateral assistance channeled through nongovernmental organizations that were directly or indirectly associated with political groups actively involved in fomenting hostilities or violence toward the government of President Aristide?” [Office of Representative Barbara Lee, 3/9/2004]

Entity Tags: Barbara Lee, John Conyers

Category Tags: The opposition/post-Artistide gov't

Haitian Gerard Latortue is appointed Prime Minister by the seven-member Council of Sages formed under a plan approved by the United States, France and the Organization of American States (see March 5, 2004). Latortue, whose current place of residence is Boca Raton, Florida, has been living outside of Haiti for decades. [Agence France-Presse, 3/11/2004; NBC 6 (Miami), 3/11/2004; Reuters, 3/13/2004] The 69-year-old former foreign minister has worked for the UN Industrial Development Organization in Africa (1972-1994) and most recently has been working as an international business consultant in Miami. [Associated Press, 3/10/2004; NBC 6 (Miami), 3/11/2004; Haiti Support Group, 3/17/2004] Hours after the appointment, US members of the international security force are fired upon by gunmen in three separate incidents while on patrol near the prime minister’s official residence. [Agence France-Presse, 3/11/2004; Associated Press, 3/11/2004]

Entity Tags: Mac Donald Jean, Danielle Magliore, Paul Emile Simon, Lamartine Clermont, Christian Rousseau, Gerard Latortue, Anne-Marie Issa, Ariel Henry

Category Tags: The opposition/post-Artistide gov't, Foreign involvement

Gerard Latortue is flown from Florida to Haiti after being appointed the day before as the country’s new prime minister (see March 9, 2004). He is sworn in on March 12 (see March 12, 2004). [Associated Press, 3/11/2004; CBS News, 3/11/2004]

Entity Tags: Gerard Latortue

Category Tags: The opposition/post-Artistide gov't

Gerard Latortue is sworn in as prime minister of Haiti “before a crowd of 200 people under heavy security,” two days after arriving in Haiti from Florida. [Associated Press, 3/13/2004]

Entity Tags: Gerard Latortue

Category Tags: The opposition/post-Artistide gov't

Guy Philippe orders 30-year-old anti-Aristide paramilitary leader, “Ti Gary,” to “go into the La Savanne neighborhood and kill Lavalas supporters.” When Ti Gary refuses, Philippe’s deputy shoots him with a shotgun in the leg. [Griffin, 4/11/2004 pdf file Sources: Ti Gary]

Entity Tags: Ti Gary, Guy Philippe

Category Tags: The opposition/post-Artistide gov't

“Following a US-backed plan,” Haitian Prime Minister Gerard Latortue meets with political leaders to begin the process of selecting thirteen ministers for a new interim government. People who had worked in the government since 2000 are automatically disqualified. Additionally, no representatives from any political parties—the Lavalas Family Party or the opposition—are supposed to be included in the interim cabinet. Notably, several of those chosen have held posts in international development organizations, which as the Haiti Support Group notes, “have been very active in Haiti for many decades without making any discernible progress with the country’s social or economic development.” Among those chosen are Yvon Simeon as foreign minister; Bernard Gousse, an anti-Aristide lawyer, as justice minister; Henri Bazan, president of the Haitian Association of Economists, UN consultant, as finance minister; former Gen. Herard Abraham as interior minister; Josette Bijoux, World Health Organization, as public health minister; Daniel Saint-Lot, Director of Training for the controversial USAID-funded, community radio development program, RAMAK, as commerce, industry and tourism minister, Pierre Buteau, as education and culture minister; Roland Pierre, agronomist, as planning and environment minister, Smarck Michel, former primer minister, as planning minister. [CNN, 3/16/2004; Haiti Support Group, 3/17/2004] Despite Latortue’s assurances, several of these people do have ties to political parties. Yvon Simeon, was the Democratic Convergence’s representative in Europe and Bernard Gousse is said to be an active member of the Group of 184. [Haiti Support Group, 3/17/2004] Interestingly, many of the new cabinet members, like Mr. LaTortue himself, are from Boca Raton, Florida, leading some observers to refer to the new government as the “Boca Regime.” [Z Magazine, 5/5/2004]

Entity Tags: Josette Bijoux, Yvon Simeon, Smarck Michel, Mac Donald Jean, Herard Abraham, Roland Pierreas, Paul Emile Simon, Pierre Buteau, Lamartine Clermont, Danielle Magliore, Gerard Latortue, Anne-Marie Issa, Ariel Henry, Henri Bazan, Christian Rousseau, Bernard Gousse, Daniel Saint-Lot

Category Tags: The opposition/post-Artistide gov't, Economic policy, foreign interference, Foreign involvement

Forty to sixty bodies are transported in trucks to a field near the Piste D’Aviation, bordering the Delmas 2 neighborhood of Port-au-Prince along a road to the airport. The following day the bodies will be relocated and burned (see March 22, 2004). [Griffin, 4/11/2004 pdf file Sources: Unnamed witnesses interviewed by a National Lawyers Guild human rights delegation]

Category Tags: The opposition/post-Artistide gov't

Forty to sixty bodies are moved from the roadside near the Piste D’Aviation (see March 22, 2004) to a remote field a quarter-mile away and burned. [Griffin, 4/11/2004 pdf file; Democracy Now!, 4/12/2004 Sources: Unnamed witnesses interviewed by a National Lawyers Guild human rights delegation] A National Lawyers Guild human rights delegation (see March 29, 2004-April 5, 2004) investigating the incident observes a “massive ash pile, and pigs eating flesh of human bones that had not burned at Piste D’Aviation.” The delegation photographs “fresh skulls and other human bones, some still tangled in clothes or with shoes and sneakers nearby.” The fuel for the fire had been transported in containers marked “Haitian currency.” [Griffin, 4/11/2004 pdf file] The photographs are later shown on the April 12 program of Democracy Now!. [Griffin, 4/11/2004 pdf file; Democracy Now!, 4/12/2004]

Entity Tags: March 2004 National Lawyers Guild Human Rights Delegation to Haiti, Tom Griffin, Edward Carlson, Judy DaCruz

Category Tags: The opposition/post-Artistide gov't

The bodies of 200 Haitians are dumped by the State Morgue in Port-au-Prince, which typically buries only about 100 bodies per month. On March 7, the morgue had buried some 800 bodies (see March 7, 2004). Many of the “bodies… had their hands tied behind their backs and had black bags over their heads, and had been shot.” This continues in April (see Early April 2004). [Griffin, 4/11/2004 pdf file; Democracy Now!, 4/12/2004 Sources: Director of the State Morgue in Port-au-Prince]

Category Tags: The opposition/post-Artistide gov't

A National Lawyers Guild Human Rights delegation, consisting of two lawyers and a journalist, travels to Haiti to investigate the various aspects of the human rights and security conditions in Port-au-Prince, Petit Goave, Gran Goave, Les Cayes, and Fond des Blancs, a remote village in the Southwest Department. After concluding its work, the delegation issues a preliminary report on April 11 which states: “[T]he delegation found overwhelming evidence that the victims of the threats and violence have been supporters of the elected government of President Aristide and the Fanmi Lavalas party, elected and appointed officials in that government or party, or employees of the government, including police. Many are in hiding in the mountains or in Port-au-Prince, others have been beaten and or killed. Many of their homes have been selectively destroyed, mostly by arson.” [Griffin, 4/11/2004 pdf file]

Entity Tags: Tom Griffin, March 2004 National Lawyers Guild Human Rights Delegation to Haiti, Edward Carlson, Judy DaCruz

Category Tags: The opposition/post-Artistide gov't

Bodies of dead Haitians continue (see March 7, 2004) (see March 28, 2004) to arrive at the State Morgue in Port-au-Prince with their “hands tied behind their backs and bags over their heads.” [Griffin, 4/11/2004 pdf file Sources: Unnamed employees at the State Morgue in Port-au-Prince]

Category Tags: The opposition/post-Artistide gov't

A National Lawyers Guild human rights delegation visits the offices of two Haitian “human rights” organizations, Comite des Avocats pour le Respect des Libertes Individuelles (CARLI) and National Committee for Haitian Rights (NCHR). During the visits, the delegation’s members become convinced that the two organizations are working with the opposition. [Griffin, 4/11/2004 pdf file]
Comite des Avocats pour le Respect des Libertes Individuelles (CARLI) - In the case of CARLI—which publishes lists of alleged human rights organizations, which it disperses to the public, the police, other government agencies, USAID, and the US Embassy—there are several factors which cause suspicion among the delegation’s members: [Griffin, 4/11/2004 pdf file]
bullet Though the group insists that it thoroughly investigates “each of the 60 to 100 monthly calls and verifies all information beyond a reasonable doubt before publicly condemning a person by naming him/her,” CARLI “has no full time staff”—only two volunteer lawyers. [Griffin, 4/11/2004 pdf file]
bullet “Hotline” forms completed by the group include terms like “a supporter of the dictator Aristide.” [Griffin, 4/11/2004 pdf file]
bullet The delegation finds “no evidence that CARLI conducts any investigation before condemning the named person.” [Griffin, 4/11/2004 pdf file]
bullet “The person ‘condemned’ to the list is never contacted to answer to the allegations.” [Griffin, 4/11/2004 pdf file]
bullet The lists have contained only Lavalas supporters. [Griffin, 4/11/2004 pdf file]
bullet The leaflets dispersed to the public are written only in French, which is spoken and understood mainly by the educated elite. Most Haitians speak Creole. [Griffin, 4/11/2004 pdf file]
bullet CARLI has never investigated cases involving Lavalas victims. [Griffin, 4/11/2004 pdf file]
bullet “CARLI was asked if it would consider ceasing the publication of the ‘list’ because it was forcing innocent people into hiding and to fear for their lives, preventing people from returning to their jobs and schools,and, as a non-judicial forum, was creating the possibility of a extra-judicial execution squads, and non-judicial arrest warrants. CARLI refused.” [Griffin, 4/11/2004 pdf file]
National Committee for Haitian Rights (NCHR) - The well-funded NCHR claims to represent victims of human rights abuses, regardless of their political affiliation. But the organization demonstrates an obvious bias in favor of the opposition. [Griffin, 4/11/2004 pdf file]
bullet The NCHR cannot name even one incident where a Lavalas supporter was a victim of a human rights abuse. [Griffin, 4/11/2004 pdf file]
bullet “NCHR took the delegation into a large meeting room where the wall was adorned with a large ‘wanted’ poster featuring Aristide and his cabinet, in small photos, across the top. It named Aristide a ‘dictator’ guilty of human rights abuses. Among a long list of other charges, it condemned him for the murder of John Dominique and included a large photo of Dominique’s dead body. The poster calls for the arrest and imprisonment of Aristide and his associates.” [Griffin, 4/11/2004 pdf file]
bullet “The Delegation suggested that NCHR’s neutrality and inclusiveness might be better expressed with additional posters condemning, for example, FRAPH, Jodel Chamblain, Jean ‘Tatoune’ Baptiste, Ti Kenley, etc. While the Director and the staff acknowledged the existence of all of those named, they laughed at the suggestion of adding other wanted posters to the office.” [Griffin, 4/11/2004 pdf file]
bullet Many of the newsletters, “open letters,” and advisories that were in the NCHR waiting room refer to Aristide as a “dictator.” None of the literature addresses abuses against supporters of Aristide. [Griffin, 4/11/2004 pdf file]
bullet “NCHR was asked if they would investigate the 1000 bodies dumped and buried by the morgue during the last few weeks at Titanye (see March 7, 2004) (see March 28, 2004), and the alleged malfunctioning of the refrigeration at the morgue. The director and his staff denied ever knowing about these events, laughed, and said none of it was true.” [Griffin, 4/11/2004 pdf file]
bullet “NCHR was asked if it would investigate the dumped bodies at Piste D’Aviation (see March 22, 2004) (see March 23, 2004). The director and his staff laughed and denied that it was true. The Delegation then showed NCHR the photographs we had taken of the ashes and fresh human skeletons. In response, the NCHR director told us that the General Hospital routinely dumps bodies at the Piste D’Aviation.” [Griffin, 4/11/2004 pdf file]

Entity Tags: Comite des Avocats pour le Respect des Libertes Individuelles (CARLI), USAID, Tom Griffin, Edward Carlson, March 2004 National Lawyers Guild Human Rights Delegation to Haiti, National Committee for Haitian Rights (NCHR), Judy DaCruz

Category Tags: The opposition/post-Artistide gov't

Haiti’s new justice minister, Bernard Gousse, announces that Haiti will seek the extradition of former president Jean-Bertrand Aristide for alleged corruption and human rights abuses. Gousse also suggests that convicted murderer and known human rights violator, Louis-Jodel Chamblain, could be pardoned. Chamblain was convicted in 2000 in absentia and sentenced to life imprisonment for his involvement in the Raboteau Massacre (see April 18-22, 1994). “We have to take into consideration that [Chamblain] helped get rid of two dictators in Haiti—[Jean-Claude] Duvalier and Aristide,” Gousse claims. [Miami Herald, 4/2/2004; Human Rights Watch, 4/5/2004; CNN, 4/8/2004] Human Rights Watch quickly condemns the suggestion. “The contrast between the Haitian government’s eagerness to prosecute former Aristide officials and its indifference to the abusive record of certain rebel leaders could not be more stark,” says Joanne Mariner, deputy director of Americas Division for Human Rights Watch. [Human Rights Watch, 4/5/2004; CNN, 4/8/2004]

Entity Tags: Joanne Mariner, Bernard Gousse, Louis-Jodel Chamblain

Category Tags: The opposition/post-Artistide gov't

The United States announces that it will send a seven-member advisory group to Haiti. One member of the team will assist Haiti’s new minister of interior with planning as well as coordination with the United Nations, the Organization of American States (OAS) and Haiti’s donors. Two advisers will work with the local police to vet its personnel and assist with “strategic planning, management, and command and control issues.” Two more advisers will help Haiti work on other issues related to internal security, one helping the new government restart its police academy, while the other will contribute in the area of local prison administration. The sixth member of the team will work with the courts and ministry of justice. The role of the last adviser will be to coordinate the activities of all the team’s members. [US Department of State, 4/5/2004; United Press International, 4/6/2004]

Category Tags: The opposition/post-Artistide gov't, Foreign involvement

In a speech to the American Enterprise Institute, Assistant Secretary of State for Western Hemisphere Affairs Roger F. Noriega speaks about Haiti. On the issue of democracy, he says that under Aristide the people of Haiti had “lost their democracy,” explaining, “Leaders can undermine a republic and their own legitimacy by their actions and that is how a people can lose their democracy.” He contends that Aristide had willfully refused to “give any quarter to or compromise with political adversaries.” [US Department of State, 4/14/2004] In the section of his speech titled, “Principles of US Engagement in Haiti,” Noriega says the US will help Haiti adopt neoliberal reforms: “We will provide technical and legal aid to update Haiti’s Commercial Code, which dates from the 19th century, in order to help create the right environment for growth and wealth creation. We will also encourage the Government of Haiti to move forward, at the appropriate time, with restructuring and privatization of some public sector enterprises through a transparent process.” [US Department of State, 4/14/2004]

Entity Tags: American Enterprise Institute, Roger Francisco Noriega

Category Tags: The opposition/post-Artistide gov't, Economic policy, foreign interference, Foreign involvement

Haitian Prime Minister Gerard Latortue drops a demand that former president Jean-Bertrand Aristide had made to France—that the country’s former colonizer pay reparations to Haiti in the amount of $21 billion (see November 2003). “This claim was illegal, ridiculous and was made only for political reasons,” Prime Minister Gerard Latortue claims, adding that Haiti wants to have good relations with France. “This matter is closed. What we need now is increased cooperation with France that could help us build roads, hospitals, schools and other infrastructure.” France, significantly, had called for Aristide’s resignation before his ouster (see February 25, 2004), leading many to speculate that its involvement in the intervention had been motivated by its interest in ending the reparations demand. During a visit earlier in the month, Defense Minister Michele Alliot-Marie denied this allegation, saying that French involvement had been motivated solely by a desire to help Haiti. [Reuters, 4/18/2004]

Entity Tags: Gerard Latortue, Michele Alliot-Marie

Category Tags: The opposition/post-Artistide gov't, Foreign involvement

The Ecumenical Program on Central America and the Caribbean (EPICA) sponsors a fact-finding trip to Haiti to investigate human rights conditions under the new government. Palmer Legare, a member of a Vermont citizens’ lobby group who participates in the investigation, tells a local newspaper upon returning from Haiti: “It’s very clear that members and supporters of Aristide’s party are being targeted. They’re being arrested, they’re being beaten, they’re being killed.” Legar recounts one particularly violent incident during which a boy was shot in the back by troops after running away from them out of fear. “He almost died because [the troops] closed the streets and he couldn’t get to a hospital,” Legare explains. [Brattleboro Reformer, 4/30/2004]

Entity Tags: Palmer Legare

Category Tags: The opposition/post-Artistide gov't

Convicted murderer and rebel leader Louis-Jodel Chamblain (see September 11, 1993) (see April 18-22, 1994) surrenders to Haitian authorities. Chamberlain—in tears—says before his surrender, “The Haitian people will see if justice is for real, if we are on a new route for Haitian justice.” Since he had been convicted in absentia, he will be retried for his crimes as allowed under the Haitian constitution. [Miami Herald, 4/24/2004]

Entity Tags: Louis-Jodel Chamblain

Category Tags: The opposition/post-Artistide gov't

In an interview with the Miami Herald, Haitian rebel Guy Philippe says that his paramilitary group, the Front de Resistance, would soon be laying down its arms and founding a new political party, the Front de Reconstrucion Nationale. He adds that he will consider running as the party’s candidate for president. “We have to do a poll and see who has the advantage,”] he explains. “If the poll says I am the person, I will be the person.” If elected president, Philippe says his first priority would be reestablishing the Haitian national army. “This would be a professional army, not the one we had,” he says, reasoning that “[y]ou can’t have foreigners invest without security.” Next on his agenda, Philippe continues, would be “education, education, education.” And unlike Aristide, whose policies often conflicted with the interests of Haiti’s wealthy elite—“who have maintained a stark class system in Haiti for 200 years”—Philippe’s policies would avoid antagonizing them. “They have a key role in this country,” he explains. Philippe claims that he and other rebels, whom human rights groups have demanded be excluded from politics in post-Aristide Haiti (see March 3, 2004), are being misrepresented. For example, he contends that Louis-Jodel Chamblain, who was convicted in absentia for his involvement in the Raboteau Massacre (see April 18-22, 1994), is in fact a hero. “I’m sorry, but Chamblain is a hero. A lot of people love him here. He offered his life for his countrymen.” An unnamed US official tells the Miami Herald, “It’s a very scary thought. It’s all the same guys. Talk about taking one step forward and two steps back.” [Miami Herald, 4/30/2004]

Entity Tags: Guy Philippe, Louis-Jodel Chamblain

Category Tags: The opposition/post-Artistide gov't

In Haiti, the Lavalas party holds a conference and agrees not to select a member for the provisional electoral council, citing widespread human rights violations against its members. The party agrees that it will not select a representative until interim Prime Minister Gerard Latortue signs an agreement stating that his government will protect Lavalas members, halt illegal arrests and disarm paramilitary rebels and thugs. “After the brutal interruption of the democratic process in Haiti, the Lavalas Family party cannot name a representative under such conditions,” Jonas Petit, a spokesman for Lavalas explains. “We won’t do so until the government puts an end to the killing, persecutions, illegal arrests, and destruction of personal property of our members and supporters.” Latortue, though saying he agrees in principle to the request, says he will not sign any agreement until Lavalas has selected a representative for the council. [Reuters, 5/3/2004; Associated Press, 5/4/2004; Z Magazine, 5/5/2004]

Entity Tags: Jonas Petit, Gerard Latortue

Category Tags: The opposition/post-Artistide gov't

In Haiti, a panel of judges swears in the new eight-member provisional electoral council. A ninth seat, meant for the Lavalas party, is left vacant because the party has so far refused to appoint a representative, citing widespread violence against its members (see Late April 2004). [Associated Press, 5/4/2004]

Category Tags: The opposition/post-Artistide gov't

Trinidad Foreign Affairs Minister Knowlson Gift announces that the Caribbean Community and Common Market (CARICOM) has requested that the Organization of American States (OAS) investigate the February 29 removal (see February 28, 2004-March 1, 2004) of Haitian President Jean-Bertrand Aristide. [Associated Press, 5/6/2004; Associated Press, 5/6/2004]

Entity Tags: Knowlson Gift, Caribbean Community and Common Market (CARICOM), Organization of American States (OAS)

Category Tags: The opposition/post-Artistide gov't

At an OAS meeting in Washington, Haitian interim Prime Minister Gerard LaTortue appeals for reconciliation with the governments of other Caribbean states. “Haiti is a member of CARICOM and proposes to continue being a member,” LaTortue says. “In this key moment of its history, my country needs all of you. May the misunderstandings be left behind.” [Associated Press, 5/6/2004; Associated Press, 5/6/2004] The new government of Haiti had previously announced its temporary withdrawal from CARICOM because of the organization’s refusal to recognize the new interim government (see March 15, 2004).

Entity Tags: Gerard Latortue, Caribbean Community and Common Market (CARICOM), Organization of American States (OAS)

Category Tags: The opposition/post-Artistide gov't

The International Crisis Group {ICG) releases a report claiming that the Haitian National Police is responsible for human rights abuses. The report calls on the UN mission in Haiti to provide security to civilians in the countryside, for the interim government to engage in dialogue with Haitian citizens, and for the interim government to focus on relieving economic marginalization. [International Crisis Group, 2/8/2005]

Entity Tags: International Crisis Group, Haitian National Police

Category Tags: The opposition/post-Artistide gov't

Gerard Latortue, Haiti’s Interim Prime Minister, defends his government by denying that Haiti is a failed state. In his defense, Latortue states that he won’t “stay one minute in this job if there are flagarant cases of human-rights violations.” Latortue also blames former president Jean-Bertrand Aristide for orchestrating violence from his exile in South Africa. [Globe and Mail, 2/8/2005]

Entity Tags: Jean-Bertrand Aristide, Gerard Latortue

Category Tags: The opposition/post-Artistide gov't

Witnesses say that Aristide supporter Abdias Jean is dragged from his house at lunch time and shot in the head by Haitian National Police. Witnesses state that ten days earlier a 17-year-old girl was executed in the same neighborhood. Witnesses in Port-Au-Prince say that summary execution is becoming a routine tactic of the police to try and intimidate Aristide supporters in Haiti. A human rights lawyer in Haiti, Judy Dacruz, says the human rights situation is “critical right now” and claims that the authorities are taking part in a “complicity of silence.” Police spokesperson Gessy Coicou denies that there have been executions taking place and encourages Abdias Jean’s family to “file a complaint.” [Newsday, 2/14/2005]

Entity Tags: Abdias Jean, Haitian National Police, Gessy Coicou

Category Tags: The opposition/post-Artistide gov't

The US State Department releases a report on human rights in Haiti one year after the ouster of Jean Bertrand Aristide. The report concludes that human rights violations have remained high under the interim government but that the interim government is not responsible for the abuses. [US Department of State, 2/28/2005]
bullet The report condemns members of the former military (FAd’H), members of the paramilitary Revolutionary Army for the Progress of Haiti (FRAPH), and the Haitian National Police (HNP) for using “deadly-force.” [US Department of State, 2/28/2005]
bullet The report also provides numerous examples of the HNP arresting Lavalas supporters without warrant and detaining them for extended periods of time without charge. The report condemns these actions as being in direct violation of the Haitian Constitution which states that a detainee cannot spend longer than 48 hours without hearing a charge before a judge. Of the people detained without charge, the report lists So Anne (Lavalas activist, folk singer, imprisoned May 2004, still imprisoned as of February 28, 2005), Father Gerard Jean-Juste (a well-known Catholic bishop, pro-Aristide activist, imprisoned October 13 and released November 29), and various members of the Lavalas Party in the Senate and Municipal government. The highest profile prisoner mentioned in the report is former Prime Minister Yvon Neptune, who as of February 28, 2005, has yet to hear a charge against him. [US Department of State, 2/28/2005]
bullet The report documents various killings of Aristide/Lavalas supporters that have taken place over the past year. The report assigns blame for some of the killings to the HNP. For others, the report concludes that the perpertrators of the killings could not be determined. [US Department of State, 2/28/2005]

Entity Tags: Jean-Bertrand Aristide, Gerard Latortue, Haitian National Police, US Department of State

Category Tags: The opposition/post-Artistide gov't

Aristide supporters rally to call for the return of their democratically elected president. The march is interrupted and dispersed by the UN an hour after it begins. Carlos Chagas Braga, a spokesperson of the UN in Haiti, says that the march did not receive authorization from the Haiti National Police and the UN Peacekeepers. [Associated Press, 2/26/2005]

Entity Tags: United Nations, Carlos Chagas Braga, Haitian National Police

Category Tags: The opposition/post-Artistide gov't

Protests break out in Port-au-Prince calling for the return of ousted Prime Minister Jean-Bertrand Aristide. Two protesters are shot dead by Hatian Police. Witnesses say that the police created a roadblock and began firing tear gas to disperse the crowd. The crowd refused to disperse, and the police began shooting into the crowd of people. Before shots were fired protesters were chanting “George Bush is the biggest terrorist!” Aristide has repeatedly blamed Bush for his ouster. Rev. Gerard Jean-Juste, a friend of Aristide who was jailed after Aristide left the country, says that “the people are revolting only to ask for what they voted for.” The deaths of the two protesters marks the one year anniversary of the rebellion. [Associated Press, 2/28/2005] The new government of Haiti had previously announced its temporary withdrawal from CARICOM because of the organization’s refusal to recognize the new interim government (see March 15, 2004).

Entity Tags: Jean-Bertrand Aristide

Category Tags: The opposition/post-Artistide gov't

Four days after the bloody one year anniversary of Aristide’s ouster, protesters march peacefully on the Haitian capital calling for the return of Aristide and the release of political prisoners. Protestors march under the protection of the UN peacekeepers, who were simply observers on February 28, 2004. Haitian police officers are prevented from entering the march’s perimeter by UN forces. A spokesperson for the march, Samba Boukman, says: “We don’t want the Haitian Police. They are killing us. We want to deal with UN troops.” [Reuters, 3/4/2005; Reuters, 3/5/2005]

Entity Tags: Haitian National Police, Samba Boukman

Category Tags: The opposition/post-Artistide gov't

Haiti’s Justice Minister Bernard Gousse says that the UN removal of Haiti’s National Police from the March 4 demonstration (see March 4, 2005) was a violation of the UN mandate. Even though demonstrators thanked the UN troops for protecting them, Gousse states that “there is no way MINUSTAH (UN presence in Haiti) can ask national police to leave an area within Haitian territory.” Gousse also claims that the Haitian National Police were “told in an aggressive way” that they were not to be present at the demonstration. [Business Day, 3/7/2005]

Entity Tags: MINUSTAH, Bernard Gousse, Haitian National Police

Category Tags: The opposition/post-Artistide gov't

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