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January 1, 1804: Haiti Declares Independence

General Jean-Jacques Dessalines declares Haiti’s independence, after crushing the French army sent by Napoleon to re-enslave it following the world’s first successful slave revolt. Dessalines quickly makes himself emperor. [Rogozinski, 1992; Dunkel, 1994]

Entity Tags: Jean-Jacques Dessalines

Timeline Tags: US-Haiti (1804-2005)

1806: US Places Embargo on Trade with Haiti

Fearful that the Haitian revolution might inspire enslaved Africans in other parts of the world to rebel, US Congress bans trade with Haiti joining French and Spanish boycotts. The embargoes cripple Haiti’s economy, already weakened by 12 years of civil war. The embargo will be renewed in 1807 and 1809. [Dunkel, 1994] The embargo is accompanied by a threat of recolonization and re-enslavement if Haiti fails to compensate France for losses incurred when French plantation owners lost access to Haiti’s slave labor. [Newsday, 12/3/2003; Miami Herald, 12/18/2003; Boston Globe, 1/4/2004]

Entity Tags: US Congress

Timeline Tags: US-Haiti (1804-2005)

Robert V. Hayne, a senator from South Carolina, summarizes US policy toward Haiti: “Our policy with regard to Haiti is plain. We never can acknowledge her independence.” This position reflects the United States’ fear that Haiti’s example would inspire slave revolts in other parts of the world and bring an end to slavery worldwide. [Dunkel, 1994; Louisiana Weekly, 3/8/2004]

Entity Tags: Robert V. Hayne

Timeline Tags: US-Haiti (1804-2005)

Haiti is forced to pay 150 million gold francs to France to “compensate” French plantation slave-owners for their “financial losses.” The amount demanded by the French represents more than twice the value of the entire country’s net worth. In exchange, France agrees to recognize Haiti’s independence. Years later, the amount is reduced to 90 million gold francs, however it will take Haiti close to 100 years to pay off this debt and only with the help of high interest loans to French banks. [Rogozinski, 1992; Newsday, 12/3/2003; Miami Herald, 12/18/2003; Boston Globe, 1/4/2004]

Timeline Tags: US-Haiti (1804-2005)

1862: US Recognizes Haiti

The US recognizes independent Haiti for the first time and sends Frederick Douglass as its Consular Minister. [Dunkel, 1994; Haiti Progres, 9/24/2003; Christian Science Monitor, 3/4/2004]

Entity Tags: Frederick Douglass

Timeline Tags: US-Haiti (1804-2005)

July 18, 1915: US Sends Troops to Haiti

US President Woodrow Wilson sends US forces to Haiti in an attempt to prevent Germany or France from taking it over. Haiti controls the Windward Passage to the Panama Canal and is seen as strategically critical. The Haitian government is near insolvency at this time and is significantly in debt to foreign corporations. German companies control almost 80 percent of Haitian trade. US forces will occupy the country until 1934. [Rogozinski, 1992, pp. 238-239] A few weeks later, the US State Department installs Senator Philippe Sudre Dartiguenave as the head of state. “When the National Assembly met, the Marines stood in the aisles with their bayonets until the man selected by the American Minister was made President,” Smedley Butler, a Marine who will administer Haiti’s local police force, later writes. [Rogozinski, 1992, pp. 239; Common Dreams, 3/10/2004]

Entity Tags: Philippe Sudre Dartiguenave, Smedley D. Butler, Woodrow Wilson

Timeline Tags: US-Haiti (1804-2005)

Under pressure from the United States, Haitian President Sudre Dartiguenave signs, and the Haitian senate ratifies, a treaty legitimizing the US occupation and putting Haitian finances and government under the control of the US for the next 20 years. The act also disbands the Haitian army, creating in its place a single US-led, 3000-man police force known as the Gendarmerie d’Haiti which answers to the US Secretary of State. [Rogozinski, 1992, pp. 239; Common Dreams, 3/10/2004] The Gendarmerie oversees the implementation of a US law reviving the practice of conscripted labor, or corv�e, which requires Haitian peasants to work on roads for three days a year. However, in some cases workers are forced to work bound with ropes for weeks and even months. The practice reminds Haitians of their slavery under the French and inspires a rebellion in 1918 (see Late 1918-1920). [Heuvel, 1990; Rogozinski, 1992, pp. 240]

Entity Tags: Philippe Sudre Dartiguenave

Timeline Tags: US-Haiti (1804-2005)

The US drafts a constitution for Haiti, which notably excludes a provision from the country’s previous constitution which had prohibited foreign ownership of land. Under the US-drafted constitution, foreign investors would be able to purchase fertile areas and establish sugar cane, cacao, banana, cotton, tobacco, and sisal plantations. But the Haitian legislature finds the US-proposed constitution unacceptable and continues working on a new document which would reverse the terms of the 1915 treaty (see November 11, 1915), giving control of Haiti back to its own government, and which would leave the previous constitution’s land restrictions intact. When a copy of the document is sent to Washington, it is quickly rejected by the US State Department which complains that it is “unfriendly” and instructs that its passage be prevented. But the Haitian lawmakers continue their work with plans to quickly ratify the new constitution and then impeach Haitian President Dartiguenave on the basis of the new document’s provisions. To prevent its passage, Dartiguenave orders US Marine Smedley Butler to dissolve the Haitian legislature, which he does as they are preparing to vote on the new constitution. Smedley claims that the measure is necessary in order “to end the spirit of anarchy which animates it [the Hatian legislature].” [Rogozinski, 1992, pp. 240; Common Dreams, 3/10/2004]

Entity Tags: Philippe Sudre Dartiguenave, Smedley D. Butler

Timeline Tags: US-Haiti (1804-2005)

The US authorities in Haiti submit the US-drafted constitution (see Early 1917) to a popular referendum, which approves it in a landslide. Less than 5 percent of Haiti’s population participate in the vote. [Rogozinski, 1992, pp. 240; Common Dreams, 3/10/2004]

Entity Tags: Philippe Sudre Dartiguenave

Timeline Tags: US-Haiti (1804-2005)

Haiti’s new constitution (see Early 1917) goes into effect. Sudre Dartiguenave remains president, though his position is nothing more than that of a figurehead. Real power remains with the US occupiers. [Rogozinski, 1992, pp. 240; Common Dreams, 3/10/2004; Encyclopedia of World History, 6th ed., 1/2/2006]

Entity Tags: Philippe Sudre Dartiguenave

Timeline Tags: US-Haiti (1804-2005)

Angered by a US-instigated law requiring forced labor (see November 11, 1915), as many as 40,000 Haitians in the north led by Charlemagne Peralte and Benoit Batraville, attack and defeat the local gendarmerie and take control over much of the northern mountainous region. US forces are called in to repress the rebellion in March of 1919. For the first time ever, airplanes are used to support soldiers. The fighting continues until November 1920. The official US record of casualties shows that thirteen US soldiers and 3,071 Haitians are killed. [Haiti Progres, n.d.; Rogozinski, 1992, pp. 240]

Entity Tags: Charlemagne Péralte, Benoit Batraville

Timeline Tags: US-Haiti (1804-2005)

1922: US Appoints New Representatives to Haiti

The Wilson administration appoints General John H. Russell as high commissioner and Louis Borno—an admirer of Mussolini—as the new Haitian president. This event follows the dismissal of the previous Haitian president, Sudre Dartiguenave, who had refused to sign an agreement concerning the repayment of debts to the US-owned National City Bank (later to be name Citibank) which controls Haiti’s National Bank and railroad system. [Rogozinski, 1992, pp. 240; Common Dreams, 3/10/2004] Russel and Borno’s period of rule are characterized by infrastructure improvement, growing racial and cultural tensions, increased US control, and—toward the end of their term—increased civil unrest. Under their authority, most of the country’s tax revenue is used to pay debts owed to foreign interests. The two will jointly rule until 1930 when, after a 1929 uprising, Borno is ousted. A short provisional head will be put in place until the National Assembly elects St�nio Vincent in November 1930 as president. [Rogozinski, 1992, pp. 240-241]

Entity Tags: Sténio Vincent, Philippe Sudre Dartiguenave, Citibank, Louis Borno, John H. Russell

Timeline Tags: US-Haiti (1804-2005)

US President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs an agreement with Haiti for a US withdrawal the following year. [Rogozinski, 1992, pp. 241]

Entity Tags: Franklin Delano Roosevelt

Timeline Tags: US-Haiti (1804-2005)

August 1, 1934: US Withdraws from Haiti

US troops withdrawal from Haiti after a 19-year occupation (see July 18, 1915). [Rogozinski, 1992, pp. 241]

Entity Tags: Franklin Delano Roosevelt

Timeline Tags: US-Haiti (1804-2005)

Francois Duvalier wins the Haitian presidential elections. Duvalier creates a totalitarian dictatorship and in 1964 declares himself president-for-life. He rules the country until his death in April 1971. His heir, the nineteen-year-old Jean-Claude, continues the dynasty until January 7, 1986 when Duvalier and his wife flee for France amid popular uprising. [Rogozinski, 1992, pp. 243]

Entity Tags: Jean-Claude Duvalier, Francois Duvalier

Timeline Tags: US-Haiti (1804-2005)

1980s: Aristide Preaches in Haiti

Jean-Bertrand Aristide, a Roman Catholic priest, preaches Liberation Theology in Haiti. US conservatives spread stories that he could be the next Castro. [Rogozinski, 1992; Taipei Times, 3/1/2004; Observer, 3/2/2004]

Entity Tags: Jean-Bertrand Aristide, Fidel Castro

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup

The IMF grants Haiti a $24.6 million loan under its Structural Adjustment Facility (SAF). As a condition, Haiti is expected to cut public spending, close “inefficient public enterprises”, and liberalize its trade policy. [Inter Press Service, 12/30/1986]

Entity Tags: International Monetary Fund

Timeline Tags: Neoliberalism and Globalization

One of the conditions for Haiti obtaining the IMF loan it previously received (see December 30, 1986) was a lowering of tariffs on rice and an end to support for domestic rice farmers. This has the effect of putting much of Haiti’s rice farmers out of business. [Washington Post, 4/13/2000; Global Exchange, 9/2001, pp. 13 pdf file]

Entity Tags: International Monetary Fund

Timeline Tags: Neoliberalism and Globalization

General Prosper Avril, a former leader of Duvaliers’ Presidential Guard, seizes control of Haiti. During his rule, he suspends 27 articles of the constitution, declares a state of siege, and is responsible for numerous human rights abuses. A US District Court will later award $41 million in compensation to six Haitians who were tortured under his regime including opposition politicians, union leaders, scholars, and “even a doctor trying to practice community medicine.” The US will help Avril evade arrest in December 2003 (see December 2003). [Miami Herald, 5/31/2001; London Review of Books, 4/15/2004]

Entity Tags: Prosper Avril

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup

Early 1990s: Haitian Trained by US

Haitian Guy Philippe is trained by US Special Forces in Ecuador. [Human Rights Watch, 2/27/2004; Miami Herald, 2/28/2004; Observer, 3/2/2004; One World, 3/2/2004]

Entity Tags: Guy Philippe

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup

December 1990: Aristide Wins Haiti Elections

Running against 11 other candidates, Jean-Bertrand Aristide wins the presidential elections in Haiti with a two-thirds majority. The election turnout is high and is later described as being “unquestionably the most honest Haiti has known.” [Rogozinski, 1992; London Review of Books, 4/15/2004]

Entity Tags: Jean-Bertrand Aristide

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup, US-Haiti (1804-2005)

In Haiti, the Front for the Advancement of Progress of the Haitian People (FRAPH) overthrows the government while Haitian President Jean-Bertrand Aristide is on a visit to the UN in New York. The group rules as a repressive military regime until 1994 when a US-led UN intervention puts Aristide back in power (see September 19, 1994-October 15, 1994) [Rogozinski, 1992; Observer, 3/2/2004] The junta is responsible for the massacre of hundreds—or by some estimates, thousands—of dissidents. [Turck, 2/24/2004; Observer, 3/2/2004; Jamaica Observer, 3/7/2004] The leader of the group is Emmanuel “Toto” Constant, who later acknowledges he had support from the CIA. “Emmanuel Constant is widely alleged, and himself claims, to have been in the pay of, and under the orders of, the US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) during the coup period,” Amnesty International will later report. The amount paid to Constant by the CIA during this period is $500/month. [Amnesty International, 2/7/1996; Center for Constitutional Rights, 2/18/2004; Observer, 3/2/2004; London Review of Books, 4/15/2004] Second in command is Louis-Jodel Chamblain, who had led death squads during the years of Jean-Claude “Baby Doc” Duvalier’s dictatorship and who is later convicted and implicated in multiple crimes committed during this period. [Observer, 3/2/2004; Jamaica Observer, 3/7/2004]

Entity Tags: Louis-Jodel Chamblain, Jean-Bertrand Aristide, Emmanuel “Toto” Constant

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup, US-Haiti (1804-2005)

Antoine Izmery, financier of Haitian President Jean-Claude Bertrand and a known pro-democracy advocate, is dragged from church during a mass, and executed. Louis-Jodel Chamblain is later convicted in absentia and sentenced to life imprisonment for the crime. [Human Rights Watch, 2/27/2004; Jamaica Observer, 3/7/2004; Amnesty International, 3/10/2004]

Entity Tags: Louis-Jodel Chamblain, Antoine Izmery, Jean-Bertrand Aristide

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup

Haitian Justice Minister Guy Malary and his bodyguard are killed in an ambush. According to a CIA memorandum, dated October 28, 1993, which will later be obtained by the Center for Constitutional Rights, “FRAPH members Jodel Chamblain, Emmanuel Constant, and Gabriel Douzable met with an unidentified military officer on the morning of 14 October to discuss plans to kill Malary.” According to the Center, “Constant at the time was a paid CIA informant, earning $500 a month.” [Center for Constitutional Rights, 2/18/2004; Human Rights Watch, 2/27/2004]

Entity Tags: Emmanuel “Toto” Constant, Louis-Jodel Chamblain

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup

On April 18 and 22, 1994, members of the Haitian Armed Forces and the paramilitary Front for the Advancement and Progress of Haiti (FRAPH) enter the coastal slum of Raboteau on the outskirts of the city of Gonaives. They break into “dozens of homes, beating, and arresting those they found inside,” the BBC will recount several years later. Several of the victims are “tortured on site” and “forced to lie in open sewers” while others are shot as they try to escape. [Jamaica Observer, 3/7/2004; BBC, 10/4/2004; Center for Justice and Accountability, 1/10/2005] Between two dozen and one hundred deaths are attributed to the Raboteau Massacre. The number will remain undetermined, however, because the attackers kill many who are fleeing in boats and whose bodies fall into the sea. Additionally, the killers toss several bodies of people killed on the land also into the ocean. Days later, mutilated bodies wash back to shore. [St. Petersburg Times, 9/1/2002; Amnesty International, 3/10/2004; Center for Justice and Accountability, 1/10/2005] Among those who will be convicted for the atrocity are Louis-Jodel Chamblain and Jean Pierre Baptiste. [Human Rights Watch, 2/27/2004; Jamaica Observer, 3/7/2004; Amnesty International, 3/10/2004; BBC, 10/4/2004; Center for Justice and Accountability, 1/10/2005]

Entity Tags: Louis-Jodel Chamblain, Jean Pierre Baptiste, “Jean Tatoune”

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup

Former Haitian president Jean-Bertrand Aristide promises donors that he will implement neoliberal reforms if he is returned to power. He agrees to a plan calling for the privatization of some state-owned enterprises, including the country’s flour mill, cement factory, and electric company. The plan also requires the removal of import controls, reforming of customs, and the elimination of limits on interest rates. But due to strong domestic opposition, Aristide will not completely follow through with the Structural Adjustment Program once in office. [Inter Press Service, 9/28/1995]

Entity Tags: Jean-Bertrand Aristide

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup, Neoliberalism and Globalization

(September 1994): Chamblain Flees Haiti

FRAPH deputy leader Louis-Jodel Chamblain escapes to the Dominican Republic when the US military intervenes in Haiti to return Jean-Bertrand Aristide to power. [Human Rights Watch, 2/27/2004]

Entity Tags: Louis-Jodel Chamblain

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup

US and UN military forces enter Haiti and restore Jean-Bertrand Aristide to the presidency. [Turck, 2/24/2004] US conservatives, such as Senator Jesse Helms, are against the intervention and criticize President Bill Clinton for engaging in unnecessary “nation building” in Haiti. Helms falsely makes the claim on the Senate floor that Aristide is “psychotic,” based on a CIA document later revealed to be a forgery. [Newsday, 3/1/2004; Taipei Times, 3/1/2004; Observer, 3/2/2004]

Entity Tags: Jesse Helms, William Jefferson (“Bill”) Clinton, Jean-Bertrand Aristide

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup, US-Haiti (1804-2005)

Haitian President Jean-Bertrand Aristide informs parliament that he will appoint Smarck Michel as the country’s new prime minister. Michel—who served briefly as Aristide’s commerce minister in 1991—owns a rice-importing business and retails gasoline. According to sources interviewed by the Washington Post, his selection “was aimed at appeasing the nation’s powerful business elite” and is viewed as a prerequisite for “winning support from foreign investors and attaining international development funds.” The Post reports, “At least two US-trained economic experts—former World Bank economist Leslie Delatour and former education minister Leslie Voltaire—had threatened not to participate in key government posts if Michel were not named prime minister.” [Washington Post, 10/25/1995]

Entity Tags: Smarck Michel, Leslie Voltaire, Jean-Bertrand Aristide, Leslie Delatour

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup

The United States-led Multinational Force (MNF) searches the FRAPH office in Port-au-Prince and removes 60,000 pages of documents, mostly in French, which are given to the US. [Amnesty International, 2/7/1996; John Pike, 4/21/2001]

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup

In Haiti, International development agencies implement short-term, labor-intensive job programs, focused primarily on road construction. According to agronomists interviewed in late summer of 1995, the programs are undermining local agricultural production and long term sustainable development programs. “In the middle of planting season, a large number of peasant farmers in the northeastern town of Vallieres abandoned their land to begin working in the areas with one of these projects,” agronomist Harry Noel explains. And in Artibonite Valley, revenues from levies on the irrigation pumps dramatically decrease when the job programs siphon off its labor supply. “Efforts over the years to create communally-managed irrigation systems have failed in just one season because of the job programs,” explains Volny Paultre, agronomist and consultant to the UN’s Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO). [Inter Press Service, 9/4/1995]

Entity Tags: Volny Paultre, Harry Noel

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup

Haitian authorities put warrants out for the arrest of FRAPH leaders Emmanuel “Toto” Constant and his deputy, Louis Jodel Chamblain who are wanted for their involvement in human rights violations that occurred during the previous three-year period of military rule. Emmanuel Constant flees to the United States. [Amnesty International, 2/7/1996]

Entity Tags: Louis-Jodel Chamblain, Emmanuel “Toto” Constant

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup

1995: Philippe Joins Haiti Police

Guy Philippe joins the new Haitian National Police and is posted at Ouanamithe near Haiti’s northern border with the Dominican Republic. [Human Rights Watch, 2/27/2004; Miami Herald, 2/28/2004]

Entity Tags: Guy Philippe

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup

May 4, 1995: Minimum Wage Doubled in Haiti

Haitian President Jean-Bertrand Aristide announces a doubling of the minimum wage effective June 1, 1995 from 18 gourdes to 36 gourdes per day. Articles 1 and 2 of his decree reads, “Beginning June 1, 1995, the minimum wage paid in industrial, commercial, and agricultural businesses is fixed at 36 gourdes per 8-hour day… Where the employee works per piece or per task, the price paid for a unit of production (per piece, per dozen, per gross, per meter, etc.) must allow the employee who works 8 hours to earn at least the minimum salary.” [Verhoogen, 1/1996]

Entity Tags: Jean-Bertrand Aristide

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup

The Haitian government solicits bids from investors for the sale of Haiti’s cement factory, flour mill, and its air and seaports. [Inter Press Service, 9/8/1995; Multinational Monitor, 11/2004]

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup

Haitian Prime Minister Smarck Michel announces that Haiti will continue with plans to privatize nine state-owned companies, though he acknowledges that most Haitians are “against the idea of privatization” and that for many, “the word is a demon.” In an effort to sell the plan to the public the government has been euphemistically describing it as the “democratization of assets.” The privatization scheme—to include Haiti’s flour mill, a cement factory, its air and seaports, telephone exchanges, and electricity—must be implemented in order for Haiti to receive $170 million in structural adjustment loans from the World Bank, the IMF, the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) and the European Union. The loans are part of a five-year, $1.2-billion aid program (see (October 18, 1996)) which Aristide had tacitly agreed to in August 1994 (see August 1994). [Inter Press Service, 9/8/1995]

Entity Tags: Smarck Michel, Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), International Monetary Fund

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup

Haitian Prime Minister Smarck Michel begins a 10-day trip aimed at “unlocking about [$1 billion] in foreign aid stalled after a political row in Haiti about planned privatization.” He begins in New York where he meets with commercial bankers. Afterwards, in a two-hour press conference with the Haitian press, he explains to his Haitian viewers that the World Bank, International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) are holding back $150 million until Haiti can “fulfill the conditions which structural adjustment demands,” and warns that there will be “dire consequences” if the Haitian people continue to resist privatization and other neoliberal reforms. [Haiti Progres, 9/13/1995]

Entity Tags: World Bank, Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), International Monetary Fund, Smarck Michel

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup

Demonstrations are held in Haiti, protesting against privatization and the foreign occupation of Haiti. [Inter Press Service, 9/28/1995]

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup

During the World Bank’s annual meeting, the Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) pressure Haiti to sign a letter of intent assuring the US, IMF, and other donors that Haiti would proceed with the Structural Adjustment Program that President Aristide had agreed to in August 1994 (see August 1994) before he was restored to power by a US-led multinational force. Haiti, whose parliament and population are strongly opposed to the neoliberal reforms, refuses to sign the letter. [Multinational Monitor, 11/2004]

Entity Tags: World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Smarck Michel, Jean-Bertrand Aristide

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup

Haiti’s government and lawyers for Alerte Belance, a Haitian woman who was assaulted by FRAPH forces during the coup period (see October 31, 1991), seek the FRAPH documents (see (Late October 1994)) from the US. But the US Defense Department refuses to provide them, saying the papers are classified and must first be reviewed before being released. The Haitian government wants to use the documents as evidence in the prosecution of FRAPH members and Belance’s attorneys have subpoenaed them for use as evidence in a lawsuit against FRAPH member Emmanuel Constant who is living openly in the USA, and who has admitted being a paid CIA asset during the FRAPH’s period of military rule in Haiti (see October 14, 1993). Belance’s lawyers say the documents could contain important information about FRAPH’s financing, their weapons, and the crimes they are accused of having committed. In October 1996, the US sends documents to Port-au-Prince, but the Haitian government refuses them on grounds that they are incomplete. [Inter Press Service, 10/10/1995; Amnesty International, 2/7/1996; Amnesty International, 2/7/1996]

Entity Tags: Emmanuel “Toto” Constant, Alerte Belance

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup

US Vice President Al Gore visits Haiti on the one-year anniversary of Jean-Bertrand Aristide’s return to power. During his visit, he meets with President Jean-Bertrand Aristide and stresses the need for his government to comply with the structural reforms which he had agreed to implement in August 1994 (see August 1994). “We discussed the need for continuing international assistance to meet the developmental requirements of Haiti and the steps the government of Haiti and its people need to take in order to ensure the continued flow of these funds,” Gore recounts during a brief press conference. Earlier in the month, Aristide’s government refused to sign a letter of intent assuring the US, IMF, and other donors that the country would follow though with the mandated reforms (see Early October 1995). [Inter Press Service, 10/16/1995; Multinational Monitor, 11/2004]

Entity Tags: International Monetary Fund, Albert Arnold (“Al”) Gore, Jr., Jean-Bertrand Aristide

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup

Haitian Prime Minister Smarck Michel resigns after President Jean-Bertrand Aristide’s cabinet refuses to accept the privatization package that the US, IMF, and other international donors have been pushing. He is replaced by Foreign Minister Claudette Werleigh. Michel will return to the Haitian political arena in 2004 when he is appointed as planning minister (see Mid-March 2004) following the February ouster of Aristide. [Inter Press Service, 10/16/1995; Multinational Monitor, 11/2004]

Entity Tags: Smarck Michel, International Monetary Fund, Jean-Bertrand Aristide

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup

Presidential elections are held and Rene Preval wins in a landslide victory. He succeeds the popular Jean-Bertrand Aristide who is barred from running again because of the Haitian constitution’s prohibition on consecutive presidential terms. [CNN, 12/16/1995; CNN, 12/17/1995]

Entity Tags: Rene Preval, Jean-Bertrand Aristide

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup

Haiti agrees to implement a wide array of neoliberal reforms outlined in the IMF’s $1.2 billion Emergency Economic Recovery Plan (EERP) put together by the World Bank, the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), the United Nations Development Program (UNDP), and the Organization of American States (OAS). The recovery package, to be funded and executed over a five-year period, aims to create a capital-friendly macroeconomic environment for the export-manufacturing sector. It calls for suppressing wages, reducing tariffs, and selling off state-owned enterprises. Notably, there is little in the package for the country’s rural sector, which represents the activities of about 65 percent of the Haitian population. The small amount that does go to the countryside is designated for improving roads and irrigation systems and promoting export crops such as coffee and mangoes. The Haitian government also agrees to abolish tariffs on US imports, which results in the dumping of cheap US foodstuffs on the Haitian market undermining the country’s livestock and agricultural production. The disruption of economic life in the already depressed country further deteriorates the living conditions of the poor. [International Report, 4/3/1995; International Monetary Fund, 10/18/1996; Shamsie, 2002; Dollars and Sense, 9/7/2003; CounterPunch, 3/1/2004]

Entity Tags: Organization of American States (OAS), USAID, Inter-American Development Bank (IDB)

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup, US-Haiti (1804-2005)

Guy Philippe serves as police chief in the Port-au-Prince suburb of Delmas. According to Human Rights Watch, “dozens of suspected gang members… [are] summarily executed, mainly by police under the command of Inspector Berthony Bazile, Philippe’s deputy.” Philippe will later deny the allegation in an interview with the Miami Herald. [Human Rights Watch, 2/27/2004; Miami Herald, 2/28/2004]

Entity Tags: Berthony Bazile, Guy Philippe

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup

Haitian President Rene Preval suspends congress and two-thirds of the senate after a dispute with the opposition party. As a result, more than 7,000 government jobs at the federal and local level become vacant. From this point on, Preval rules by decree. [BBC, 5/9/2003]

Entity Tags: Rene Preval

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup

After being postponed three times during the last seven months, Haitian parliamentary and local elections are finally held with a turnout of about 60 percent. Voters must fill some 7,625 posts in the legislature, mayoral commissions, and local and rural councils that were made vacant in January 1999, when the congress and local offices were disbanded by President Rene Preval (see January 1999). The Lavalas party of Jean-Bertrand Aristide wins the elections by a landslide, winning 15 of the 19 contested Senate seats and some 80 percent of the seats in the House of Assembly. However the results are challenged by the opposition, the US, and the Organization of American States, which say that Haiti’s electoral council did not use the proper formula to calculate the votes. As a result of the controversy, the opposition will boycott the June 9 run-off elections (see July 9, 2000) as well as the presidential elections in November (see November 2000). More significantly, aid donors threaten that they will continue to withhold $500 million in aid if the government does not come to an agreement with the opposition. [BBC, 5/22/2000; BBC, 5/22/2000; BBC, 5/30/2000; BBC, 7/8/2000; BBC, 7/14/2000; CBS News, 11/29/2000; Associated Press, 12/7/2000; US Department of State, 2/23/2001; Dollars and Sense, 9/7/2003; Turck, 2/24/2004; CounterPunch, 3/1/2004; Taipei Times, 3/1/2004]

Entity Tags: Jean-Bertrand Aristide, Rene Preval

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup

Political groups opposed to the party of Jean-Bertrand Aristide form the Democratic Convergence, a coalition made up of roughly 200 groups, which is headed by former Port-au-Prince mayor Evans Paul, a previous Aristide supporter and leader of the Convention for Democratic Unity. [Boston Globe, 2/14/2004; Turck, 2/24/2004] The Convergence is a product of the USAID program, “Democracy Enhancement,” the purpose of which is to “fund those sectors of the Haitian political spectrum where opposition to the Aristide government could be encouraged.” Financial support for the Convergence comes from the International Republican Institute (IRI), which is associated with the US government-funded National Endowment for Democracy. The IRI receives about $3 million annually from Congress, as well as millions more from private Haitian and US interests. The organization’s board includes a number of “current or former Republican Party officials, Republican officeholders, or members of Republican administrations.” The IRI’s activities in Haiti are not completely understood and Roger Noriega, the US permanent representative to the Organization of American States, has always refused to elaborate on the organization’s work in Haiti. [Z Magazine, 7/1994; Boston Globe, 2/14/2004; Turck, 2/24/2004; Interhemispheric Resource Center, 2/27/2004; CounterPunch, 3/1/2004]

Entity Tags: Roger Francisco Noriega, US Congress, USAID, Jean-Bertrand Aristide, National Endowment for Democracy, Evans Paul, International Republican Institute, Democratic Convergence

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup

July 9, 2000: Run-Off Elections Held in Haiti

Haiti holds run-off elections for candidates who failed to win a majority of the votes in the May 21 elections (see May 21, 2000). However 10 senators from the party of Jean-Bertrand Aristide who won only by plurality, and not by majority, are not required to run, prompting immediate criticism from the US, UN, the OAS, and the opposition parties. Donor nations and organizations threaten to continue withholding $400 million in aid. [BBC, 7/11/2000; BBC, 7/14/2000; BBC, 2/7/2001; Miami Herald, 2/28/2004]

Entity Tags: Jean-Bertrand Aristide, Organization of American States (OAS)

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup

The prime minister of Haiti says that Guy Philippe and others are planning to overthrow the Aristide government. Philippe and the other plotters flee across the Dominican border before they can be arrested. [Human Rights Watch, 2/27/2004; Miami Herald, 2/28/2004]

Entity Tags: Guy Philippe, Jean-Bertrand Aristide

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup

Jean-Bertrand Aristide runs unopposed in Haiti’s presidential elections and wins with 91.5 percent of the vote. The opposition Democratic Convergence party does not participate in the elections in protest of the May 21, 2000 congressional and municipal elections (see May 21, 2000) which its members claim were rigged. The election turnout is disputed. Though some news agencies report a low turnout of between 5 percent and 10 percent, Aristide’s party, as well as five US-based NGOs—Global Exchange, the Quixote Center, Witness for Peace, and Pax Christi—estimate the figure at 61 percent, or 3 million of Haiti’s voters. [BBC, 7/7/2000; CBS News, 11/29/2000; Associated Press, 12/7/2000; Global Exchange, 2001; Dollars and Sense, 9/7/2003; Turck, 2/24/2004; CounterPunch, 3/1/2004; Z Magazine, 5/5/2004] These figures are also supported by USAID-commissioned Gallup polls taken both before and after the elections, but which are suppressed by the US. [Z Magazine, 5/5/2004]

Entity Tags: Democratic Convergence, Jean-Bertrand Aristide, USAID

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup, US-Haiti (1804-2005)

Clinton holdover US Ambassador to Haiti Brian Dean Curran complains that Stanley Lucas of the Republican-dominated International Republican Institute (IRI) is “undermining” international efforts to help Haitian President Jean-Bertrand Aristide and the Democratic Convergence come to a compromise over Haiti’s contested 2000 congressional elections (see May 21, 2000). [Newsday, 3/16/2004]

Entity Tags: Stanley Lucas, Brian Dean Curran, Jean-Bertrand Aristide, International Republican Institute, Democratic Convergence

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup

The Organization of American States (OAS) blocks $400 million in aid to Haiti from the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), citing the unresolved status of the contested 2000 Haitian elections (see May 21, 2000). The aid package was to consist of four separate loans for health, education, drinking water, and road improvements. Though it is claimed that this decision has been reached by a consensus, critical observers raise questions about the influence of an April 6 letter (see April 6, 2001) from a US official asking the IDB to suspend the release of these funds. [London Review of Books, 4/15/2004]

Entity Tags: Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), Organization of American States (OAS)

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup

According to Haiti expert Robert Maguire of Trinity College, the permanent US representative to the Organization of American States Roger Noriega and US Special Envoy to Latin America Otto Reich lead a “relatively small group of people” who develop strategies toward Haiti. [Dollars and Sense, 9/7/2003]

Entity Tags: Otto Juan Reich, Roger Francisco Noriega

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup

Observers note a remarkable anti-Aristide bias in the US mainstream media during this period. [Dollars and Sense, 9/7/2003]

Entity Tags: Jean-Bertrand Aristide

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup

Under the leadership of Jean-Bertrand Aristide, the Haitian government engages in cooperative projects with Cuba and Venezuela. The Chavez government offers to provide oil at significantly reduced prices, and treaties between Haiti and Cuba result in a presence of more than 800 Cuban medical workers in Haiti. In an explicit challenge to US domination of the regional trade patterns, Haiti works with other island nations to create a regional trading bloc that “may be a bulwark against the FTAA and other [US-led] initiatives.” Haiti and other Latin American countries regularly discuss regional strategies to reduce US hegemony in the region. [Dollars and Sense, 9/7/2003]

Entity Tags: Jean-Bertrand Aristide

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup, US-Haiti (1804-2005)

The United States Government funds and trains a 600-member paramilitary army of anti-Aristide Haitians in the Dominican Republic with the authorization of the country’s president, Hipolito Mejia. The funds—totaling $1.2 milllion—are directed through the International Republican Institute (IRI) on the pretext of encouraging democracy in Haiti. In order to evade attention, the paramilitary soldiers appear at their training sessions dressed in the uniforms of the Dominican Republic national police. The training—provided by some 200 members of the US Special Forces—takes place in the Dominican villages of Neiba, San Cristobal, San Isidro, Hatillo, Haina, and others. Most of the training takes place on property owned by the Dominican Republic Government. Technical training, conducted once a month, takes place in a Santo Domingo hotel through the IRI. Among the Hatians that take part in the program are known human rights violators including Guy Philippe and Louis-Jodel Chamblain. [Newsday, 3/16/2004; Xinhua News Agency (Beijing), 3/29/2004; Radio Mundo, 4/2/2004; Democracy Now!, 4/7/2004]

Entity Tags: Louis-Jodel Chamblain, Guy Philippe, International Republican Institute

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup, US-Haiti (1804-2005)

February 7, 2001: Aristide Takes Office

Jean-Bertrand Aristide takes office amid criticisms that his party won the previous year’s congressional elections unfairly. [BBC, 2/7/2001]

Entity Tags: Jean-Bertrand Aristide

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup

Stanley Lucas, the International Republican Institute’s (IRI) senior program officer for Haiti, tells an audience on Radio Tropicale that there are three ways to get rid of newly elected Haitian president Jean-Bertrand Aristide: call early elections and vote him out, charge him with corruption and let the courts imprison him, or assassinate him. With the blessing and assistance of the Bush administration, the IRI, a subsection of the US government’s National Endowment for Democracy, will step up its campaign to get rid of Aristide. The IRI, using $3 million in US taxpayer funds, will train and fund anti-Aristide candidates, help unite them into a single anti-Aristide bloc, and, according to a former US ambassador to Haiti, work to block all internationally-proposed power-sharing agreements in order to heighten Haiti’s political crisis and encourage a coup against Aristide. The IRI also will help in the Bush administration’s failed attempt to precipitate a coup against Venezuela’s Hugo Chavez (see April 12, 2002). Lucas himself is a charismatic, wealthy Haitian exile with a history of training Haitian insurgents and deep, murky ties to right-wing organizations and politicians in America, particularly longtime Aristide foe Senator Jesse Helms (R-NC) and Bush’s Latin American envoy Otto Reich. [Salon, 7/16/2004]

Entity Tags: Stanley Lucas, International Republican Institute, Jean-Bertrand Aristide, Radio Tropicale, Otto Juan Reich, Jesse Helms

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup

Lawrence Harrington, the US representative to the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) sends a letter to Enrique Iglesias, the IDB’s president, recommending that the bank block already approved loans to Haiti. “At this point disbursements could normally begin, assuming all loans conditions had been met,” Harrington writes. “However, we do not believe that these loans can or should be treated in a routine manner and strongly urge you to not authorize any disbursements at this time.” [US Department of State, 4/6/2001 pdf file; London Review of Books, 4/15/2004] The loans are for health, education, drinking water, and road improvements. The OAS will block these loans 14 days later (see (2001)). [London Review of Books, 4/15/2004]

Entity Tags: Organization of American States (OAS), Lawrence Harrington, Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), Enrique Iglesias

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup

With the exception of Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez, 34 heads of state attending the Organization of American States (OAS) summit, pledge to direct their “Ministers to ensure that negotiations of the FTAA [Free Trade Area of Americas] Agreement are concluded no later than January 2005 and to seek its entry into force as soon as possible thereafter, but in any case, no later than December 2005.” [Haitian Times, 4/18/2001; Andean Community, 4/22/2001; Haiti Weekly News, 5/2/2001] According to an unnamed senior offical at the US State Department, the declaration also lays the groundwork for creating a legal pretext for blocking aid to countries. [US Congress, 7/15/2003 pdf file; London Review of Books, 4/15/2004] The section of the declaration discussing the OAS’s commitment to democracy reads: “… any unconstitutional alteration or interruption of the democratic order in a state of the Hemisphere constitutes an insurmountable obstacle to the participation of that state’s government in the Summit of the Americas process….To enhance our ability to respond to these threats, we instruct our Foreign Ministers to prepare, in the framework of the next General Assembly of the OAS, an Inter-American Democratic Charter to reinforce OAS instruments for the active defense of representative democracy.” [Andean Community, 4/22/2001; Haiti Progres, 4/25/2001] During the summit, before the final declaration is made, Haiti is singled out as the region’s problem democracy. “Democracy in certain countries is still fragile,” Canadian Prime Minister Jean Chretien says, “We are particularly concerned about the case of Haiti. We note the problems which continue to limit the democratic, political, economic, and social development of this country.” [Haiti Progres, 4/25/2001] Press reports note the ant-Aristide atmosphere. The BBC reports, “Correspondents say the presence of Mr. Aristide at the summit has been an embarrassment to some of the leaders, who agreed that only democratic countries would be included in the Free Trade Zone of the Americas.” [BBC, 4/22/2001] The New York Post similarly recounts, “Diplomats said the expressions of concern about Haiti were to make sure that Aristide can’t use his presence at the summit… to claim he has international support.” [New York Post, 4/23/2001] And according to Reuters, “the Summit decided to comment on Haiti because leaders did not want Aristide to return home in triumph.” [New York Post, 4/23/2001; Haiti Progres, 4/25/2001]

Entity Tags: Jean Chretien, Jean-Bertrand Aristide, Hugo Chavez Frias, Organization of American States (OAS)

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup, US International Relations

Seven of the eight Haitian senators, whose elections are still being disputed by the Democratic Convergence (see May 21, 2000), resign after President Jean-Bertrand Aristide tells the General Assembly of the Organization of American States that he will hold new elections for the contested Senate seats within six months. But the Democratic Convergence is not satisfied with the concession and maintains its insistence that he resign and that it be put in charge of a non-elected “transition” government. [BBC, 6/8/2001; Dollars and Sense, 9/7/2003; Turck, 2/24/2004]

Entity Tags: Jean-Bertrand Aristide, Democratic Convergence

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup

The US convinces several European countries to suspend hundreds of millions of dollars in credit and aid and provide the IMF, World Bank, and European Union with “vague instructions” to deny other lines of credit to the impoverished Caribbean country of Haiti. The resumption of aid and credit is made contingent on Haitian President Aristide coming to an agreement with the opposition party, the Democratic Convergence, which is controlled and financed by Haitian and US right-wing interests. [Singleton, 5/16/2003 pdf file; Dollars and Sense, 9/7/2003; Taipei Times, 3/1/2004; CounterPunch, 3/1/2004; Observer, 3/2/2004]

Entity Tags: Democratic Convergence, George W. Bush

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup, US-Haiti (1804-2005)

Lavalas Family (LF) deputy Nahoum Marcellus exposes a scandal involving the duty-free import of 70,000 metric tons of rice by Lavalas senators and representatives. They used the cover of a fake cooperative reportedly founded by FL Senator Mirlande Liberus (an Aristide Foundation director), Paul Preslet (a former Aristide Foundation director, current head of the National Bank of Credit), and Jonas Petit, the FL’s official spokesman. Charles Souffrant, head of the peasant organization Kozepe, denounces the scheme which undermines the production of local rice and hurts Haiti’s rice growers. The Haitian treasury lost some 117 million gourdes in customs duties and tax revenues as a result of the ploy. [Haiti Progres, 2/6/2002]

Entity Tags: Paul Preslet, Nahoum Marcellus, Charles Souffrant, Mirlande Libérus, Jonas Petit

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup

Haiti-Progres, a Haitian newspaper published in the United States, reports that President Aristide’s Lavalas party is engulfed in financial scandals which are wreaking havoc on the economy. The most serious scandal so far is the duty-free import of 70,000 metric tons of rice by Lavalas senators and representatives, who used the cover of a fake cooperative (see (Late January 2002)). [Haiti Progres, 2/6/2002]

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup

A USAID-commissioned Gallup poll indicates that 61.6 percent of the survey’s participants sympathize or are members of Aristide’s Fanmi Lavalas party, while only 13 percent say they support the Democratic Convergence or any of its associated parties. Sixty percent of the respondents indicate that the Haitian leader they trust most is Aristide, though several say they trust no one. Democratic Convergence leader Gerard Gourgue, with only 3.7 percent, is the next most trusted politician. [Z Magazine, 5/5/2004]

Entity Tags: USAID, Gerard Gourgue, Jean-Bertrand Aristide

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup

The US ships 20,000 M-16s to the Dominican Republic. Though some US officials will later claim that the weapons transfer had only been agreed to at this time—not completed—there will be much evidence to the contrary. [Fox News, 3/2/2004; Washington Times, 3/4/2004; Newsday, 3/16/2004; Web Ready Corporation, 3/26/2004] According to the Florida-based website, fuerzasmildom.com, which provides a detailed history and description of the Dominican military forces, the Dominican military receives a “donation of 20,000 surplus M16 rifles from the US Military Assistance Program” in October 2002. [Web Ready Corporation, 3/26/2004] Additionally, according to one of the staff aides of US Senator Christopher Dodd, several Defense Department letters written in 2002 and 2003 appear to show that the weapons transfer had been completed. [Newsday, 3/16/2004] After Haitian President Jean-Bertrand Aristide is ousted a year and a half later, his attorney, Ira Kurzman, will tell Fox News that the guns had been provided to the Dominican Republic by the US “in an operation called Jade Project where they [sic] secretly trained Dominican army people.” [Fox News, 3/2/2004]

Entity Tags: Ira Kurzman, Jean-Bertrand Aristide, Christopher Dodd

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup, US-Haiti (1804-2005)

The Haiti Democracy Project (HDP) is formally established. At its official launching, which takes place at the Brookings Institution in Washington, D.C., speakers warn that the current “crisis” in democracy in Haiti is worsening at an ever increasing pace. “… Luigi Einaudi opened the talks with dire predictions that Haiti was fast approaching a point where diplomatic means would no longer contribute to solve the crisis. According to Einaudi, those concerned about Haiti should at this time be gathering for a ‘wake.’ The rapidly deteriorating economic situation, the inability of the main protagonists to advance the negotiating process and the increasing protest demonstrations throughout the country made for a very bleak future.” US ambassador to the OAS, Roger Noriega also speaks at the ceremony. At one point, Noriega says, referring to the contested 2000 Haitian elections (see May 21, 2000), “We have to get them [The Haitian people] that opportunity as they will not participate in a farce.” [Haiti Democracy Project, 11/20/2004] Attending the event are some questionable figures including Stanley Lucas and Olivier Nadal. Lucas is said to be the point man in Haiti for the USAID-financed International Republican Institute, which is providing training and funds to anti-Aristide Haitian rebels in the Dominican Republic (see (2001-2004)). Nadal is a Miami-based Haitian businessman and the former president of the Haitian Chamber of Commerce. [Haiti Democracy Project, 11/20/2004] Nadal is implicated in a peasant massacre that occurred in the Haitian town of Piatre. In 1990, a group of peasants were killed by Nadal’s security after they squatted on unused land that he owned. [Haiti Progres, 7/21/1999; National Coalition for Haitian Rights, 4/24/2004] The prominent businessman Antoine Izmery said shortly before he was murdered that Nadal had been one of the financiers of the 1991 coup d’etat (see October 31, 1991) that ousted Aristide from office. And in 1994, the United States government froze Nadal’s assets because of his suspected involvement in the coup. [Haiti Progres, 7/21/1999] The Haiti Democracy Project is funded by the wealthy, right-wing Haitian Boulos family, which owns several companies including Pharval Pharmaceuticals, the USAID-funded Radio Vision 2000, the Delimart supermarket, and Le Matin. In February 2002, Rudolph Boulos was under investigation for his possible involvement in the assassination of Haitian journalist Jean Dominique who had been very critical of Pharval after contamination of the company’s “Afrebril and Valodon” syrups with diethyl alcohol had resulted in the deaths of 60 children. [Haiti Progres, 7/21/1999; Haiti Weekly News, 2/28/2002; Knight Ridder, 3/11/2004; Haiti Democracy Project, 11/20/2004] The project’s board of directors includes Rudolph Boulos, CEO of Pharval Laboratories; Vicki Carney of CRInternational; Prof. Henry F. Carey of Georgia State University; Timothy Carney, US ambassador to Haiti (1998-1999); Clotilde Charlot, former vice-president of the Haitian Association of Voluntary Agencies; Lionel Delatour of the Center for Free Enterprise and Democracy (CLED); Ira Lowenthal, an “Anthropologist”; Charles Manus; Orlando Marville, Chief of the OAS electoral mission to Haiti in 2000; James Morrell, the Haiti Democracy Project’s executive director; Lawrence Pezzullo, US special envoy for Haiti (1993-1994); and Ernest H. Preeg, US ambassador to Haiti (1981-1983). [Haiti Democracy Project, 3/26/2004]

Entity Tags: Luigi Einaudi, Lionel Delatour, Orlando Marville, Roger Francisco Noriega, Stanley Lucas, Vicki Carney, Timothy Carney, Lawrence Pezzullo, Rudolph Boulos, Jean-Bertrand Aristide, Olivier Nadal, James Morrell, Antoine Izmery, Charles Manus, Ernest H. Preeg, Clotilde Charlot, Henry F. Carey, Ira Lowenthal, Jean Dominique, Haiti Democracy Project

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup

The “Coalition of 184 Civic Institutions” is established. It is comprised of Haitian NGOs funded by USAID and/or the International Republican Institute (IRI), the Haitian-American Chamber of Commerce, as well as several other groups. [Dollars and Sense, 9/7/2003] The coalition’s leader is Andre Apaid, a US citizen born to Haitian parents who is the head of Alpha Industries, “one of the oldest and largest assembly factories in Haiti.” His factories—located in Haiti’s free trade zones—produce textiles and assemble electronic products for several US companies, including Sperry/Unisys, IBM, Remington and Honeywell, some of which are used in US Government computers and US Defense Department sonar and radar equipment. According to a report by the National Labor Committee, Apaid’s businesses are known to have forced their employees to work 78-hour work-weeks at wages below the minimum rate. [Kernaghan, 1/1996; Haiti Progres, 11/12/2003; London Review of Books, 4/15/2004]

Entity Tags: International Republican Institute, USAID, Haiti Democracy Project, Andre Apaid

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup, US-Haiti (1804-2005)

Denis Paradis, Canada’s Secretary of State for Latin America, hosts a two-day meeting at the Meech Lake Lodge called the “Ottawa Initiative.” The meeting is designed to look at the current situation in Haiti, and is held without public access. In attendance are two high-ranking officials from the US State Department, officials from France, EU, El Salvador, and Canada. No one from Haiti is invited. What is discussed at the meeting is kept secret until it is leaked in March (see March 22, 2005). [News Haiti, 8/28/2004]

Entity Tags: Denis Paradis, US Department of State

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup

Stanley Lucas, who is the point man in Haiti for the Republican-dominated International Republican Institute (IRI) based in the Dominican Republic, meets with Haitian rebel Guy Philippe and his men. Three months later the group will cross into Haiti and attack a hydroelectric power plant. Lucas has long ties to the Haitian military (see Early May 2003). After the toppling of Aristide’s government 12 months later, it will be learned that the group had been funded and trained through the IRI (see (2001-2004)). [Interhemispheric Resource Center, 2/27/2004; Newsday, 3/16/2004]

Entity Tags: Stanley Lucas, Guy Philippe, International Republican Institute

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup, US-Haiti (1804-2005)

During a rally celebrating the anniversary of his first inauguration in 1990, Haitian President Jean-Bertrand Aristide announces that his government is doubling the minimum wage from 36 to 70 gourdes (or about $1.60) a day, despite the strong disapproval of Haiti’s business elites. [Office of Representative Maxine Waters, 2/18/2004; CIS Resource Information Center, 9/20/2005] This marks the second time since his return to office in 1994 that he has doubled the minimum wage (see May 4, 1995).

Entity Tags: Jean-Bertrand Aristide

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup

Attorney General John Ashcroft states that US authorities have “noticed an increase in third country nations (Pakistanis, Palestinians, etc.) using Haiti as a staging point for attempted migration to the United States. This increases the national security interest in curing use of this migration route.” Commenting on the remarks, State Department spokesman Stuart Patt says, “We all are scratching our heads. We are asking each other, ‘Where did they get that?’” No evidence is ever offered by Ashcroft or anyone else in the Justice Department to support the accusation. Miami Immigration attorney Ira Kurzban, who will later represent Jean-Bertrand Aristide after his removal, says the statements are “part of a concerted plan involving the destruction of the Haitian people by creating the chaotic economic conditions in Haiti while forcing people to go back there.” Kurzban adds: “There is no basis of fact for the attorney general’s claims. No information of this nature has been presented to the Haitian government. It’s a false claim. It’s used to perpetuate a discriminatory policy against Haitians.” [Miami Herald, 4/25/2003]

Entity Tags: Stuart Patt, Ira Kurzman, John Ashcroft

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup

The Haitian Press Agency (AHP) reports that diplomats at the Organization of American States are openly circulating demands for the removal of Haitian president Jean-Bertrand Aristide. “One document’s author suggested that it would be best if the situation kept deteriorating, saying that any aid should be blocked until 2005 in order to eliminate the party in power, Fanmi Lavalas [Lavalas Family], which will be of no help to the population, according to him.” [Black Commentator, 5/15/2003] Though the news report does not provide any names, one possible source for the remarks is Roger Noriega, the US permanent representative to the Organization of American States. Noriega is a known critic of Aristide.

Entity Tags: Jean-Bertrand Aristide, Roger Francisco Noriega

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup, US-Haiti (1804-2005)

A group of at least 20 paramilitary soldiers—trained and funded by the US (see (2001-2004)) —cross into Haiti from the neighboring Dominican Republic and attack a hydroelectric power plant on Haiti’s central plateau. Shortly after the attack, Dominican authorities, at the behest of the Haitian government, arrest five men, including Guy Philippe, in connection with the paramilitary operation. But they are quickly released by the Dominicans who say there is no evidence of their involvement in the attack. Philippe is interviewed by the Associated Press afterwards and asked what he is doing in the Dominican. Philippe, who mentions to the reporter that he would support a coup against Aristide, refuses to “say how he makes a living or what he does to spend his time in the Dominican Republic.” Less than one year later, Philippe will participate in the overthrow of the Aristide government. [Black Commentator, 5/15/2003] On the same day the five men are detained, Haitian authorities raid the Port-au-Prince residence of mayoral candidate Judith Roy of the Democratic Convergence opposition. The Haitians claim to find “assault weapons, ammunitions, and plans to attack the National Palace and Aristide’s suburban residence.” The Haitian government contends that Roy is close to Philippe. [Black Commentator, 5/15/2003]

Entity Tags: Judith Roy, Democratic Convergence, Guy Philippe

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup

Dominican police arrest five Haitians, including Arcelin Paul, the official Democratic Convergence representative in the Dominican Republic, who they believe are plotting the overthrow of Jean-Bertrand Aristide’s government. Also at this time, there is a US build-up along the Dominican border, where “900 US soldiers patrol jointly with the Dominican army, whom they have armed with 20,000 M16s.” Ben Dupuy, general secretary of the left-wing party PPN, tells the left-wing Haiti Progres, “There is no doubt these guys are true terrorists working with the CIA under Dominican protection.” Documentary filmmaker Kevin Pina, who has been covering Haiti for over a decade, calls this the “US funding of the Haitian ‘Contras.’” A September 2003 article in the magazine, Dollars and Sense, will comment: “Whatever we call them, there is an organized and well-funded armed group with ties to the Convergence, based in the Dominican Republic, which aims to overthrow the Aristide government. The Bush administration’s support for the Convergence and its refusal to denounce this violence, as well as the US military presence along the border, through which the ‘Manman’ army easily travels, clearly implicates the United States in this aim.” [Dollars and Sense, 9/7/2003]

Entity Tags: Jean-Bertrand Aristide, Arcelin Paul, Democratic Convergence, Ben Dupuy

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup, US-Haiti (1804-2005)

May 15, 2003: Magazine Predicts Coup in Haiti

The Black Commentator magazine publishes an essay predicting a US-sponsored overthrow of Jean-Bertrand Aristide. An unnamed source in Haiti tells the magazine that Bush administration officials “want a subservient client in power when the bicentennial [festivities celebrating Haiti’s 200 years of independence] comes down.” The source adds, “They cannot control Aristide, therefore they must do as they always have in these situations, destroy him and his government by any means necessary.” [Black Commentator, 5/15/2003]

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup

The TransAfrica Forum publishes the report, “Withheld International Aid: The US Weapon of Mass Disruption,” which describes the deteriorating social and economic conditions in Haiti that have been accelerated as a result of the US-instigated suspension of aid and credit to Haiti. The report concludes: “the United States and the international community must immediately end its economic sanctions and release the $500 million in approved foreign aid. With this assistance the people of Haiti can move toward breaking the cycle of poverty.” [Singleton, 5/16/2003 pdf file]

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup

Haiti uses more than 90 percent of its foreign reserves to pay $32 million in debt service to its international creditors, requiring Aristide’s government to end fuel subsidies and slash spending on health and education programs. Haiti’s debt is of dubious legality, however, as the London-based Haiti Support Group explains: “Haiti’s debt to international financial institutions and foreign governments has grown from $302 million in 1980 to $1.134 billion today. About 40 per cent of this debt stems from loans to the brutal Duvalier dictators, who invested precious little of it in the country. This is known as ‘odious debt’ because it was used to oppress the people, and, according to international law, this debt need not be repaid.” The debt payment increases public dissatisfaction with Aristide’s administration. [Dollars and Sense, 9/7/2003; CounterPunch, 3/1/2004; London Review of Books, 4/15/2004]

Entity Tags: Jean-Bertrand Aristide

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup, US-Haiti (1804-2005)

US Ambassador to Haiti Brian Dean Curran, a Clinton holdover, says in a farewell address to the Haitian-American Chamber of Commerce (HAMCHAM), “The United States accepts President Aristide as the constitutional president of Haiti for his term of office ending in 2006.” [Haiti Papers, 11/2003 pdf file; New York Times, 2/29/2004] Curran is sent to Naples, Italy and succeeded by career diplomat James Foley. [Associated Press, 8/1/2003; New York Times, 2/29/2004]

Entity Tags: Brian Dean Curran, James Foley

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup

Haitian President Jean-Bertrand Aristide demands that France return the money Haiti had paid to its former colonizer in service of a dubious debt agreement the country had been forced to accept—under threat of recolonization—in 1825 (see 1825). The exact amount, with interest added and adjusted for inflation, is $21,685,135,571.48. [Haiti Action (.net), 8/5/2003; Newsday, 12/3/2003; Miami Herald, 12/18/2003; London Review of Books, 4/15/2004] France will later back the removal of Aristide in February 2004 (see February 25, 2004). [New York Times, 2/26/2004]

Entity Tags: Jean-Bertrand Aristide

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup, US-Haiti (1804-2005)

December 2003: Former Dictator Avoids Arrest

Former dictator Prosper Avril (see September 1988-March 1990) evades arrest by Haitian police after US troops intervene. When the police enter his residence, they find military uniforms, illegal police radios and a cache of weapons. [London Review of Books, 4/15/2004]

Entity Tags: Prosper Avril

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup

January 2004: Haitian Legislature Lapses

The terms of all Haitian legislators elected in 2000 expire. The Democratic Convergence refuses to allow new congressional elections, so Haiti at this time no longer has a legislature. [Turck, 2/24/2004]

Entity Tags: Democratic Convergence

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup

Seventy wealthy Haitians and Haitian-Americans officially launch Haiti’s first investment bank, PromoCapital. The bank, a 50/50 joint-venture between Haitian and US shareholders, consists of two institutions: PromoCapital Haiti, SA—incorporated in Haiti as a “Societe Financiere de Developpement” —and PromoCapital USA, Inc,—a corporation registered in the state of Delaware. [PromoCapital, 4/2/2004; USA Today, 4/29/2004] The bank’s headquarters are in Petionville, Haiti with representative offices in Washington, DC, and Aventura, Florida. [PromoCapital, 4/2/2004; USA Today, 4/29/2004] Its founder, Dumarsais Simeus, who owns a large food-processing business in Texas, says the bank’s investors hope to see annual returns on their investment in the mid- or high teens. He is also the chair of PromoCapital USA. Henri Deschamps, a prominent Port-au-Prince printing and media executive, is the chairman of PromoCapital Haiti. [PromoCapital, 4/2/2004; USA Today, 4/29/2004] Of the 70 names included on the list of PromoCapital shareholders, nine—Frederic Madsen, Gilbert Bigio, Gregory Brandt, Marc-Antoine Acra, Monique Bigio, Olivier Acra, Ronald Georges, Reuven Bigi, and Sebastien Acra—appear on a US Treasury Department list of people and organizations whose assets had been blocked by the US Department of Treasury, Office of Foreign Assets Control under the Clinton Administration, until 1994. [US Department of the Treasury, 1994] And one of them, Hans Tippenhauer, had told The Washington Post on February 23 that the Haitians had enthusiastically greeted the paramilitary rebel forces as “freedom fighters.” [Washington Post, 2/24/2004]

Entity Tags: Michael Gay Sr., Monique Bigio, Josseline Colimon-Féthière, May Parisien, Olivier Acra, Nadege Tippenhauer, Marc-Antoine Acra, Laurence Bigio, Laurent Pierre-Philippe, Joelle Coupaud, Joseph Baptiste, Julio Bateau, Kimberly Simeus, Patrice Backer, Magdalah Silva, Patrick Delatour, PromoCapital, Patrick Tardieu, Steeve Handal, The Simeus Foundation, Vanessa Dickey, Yael Bigio-Garoute, Yves Joseph, Serge Pinard, Serge Parisien, Sebastien Acra, Régynald Heurtelou, Jerry Tardieu, Reginald Villard, Patrick Moynihan, Reuven Bigio, Rudolph Berrouët, Rudolph Moise, Ronald Georges, Jean-Robert Vertus, Jon Robertson, Jean-Marie Wolff, Elda James, Esq., Elisabeth Delatour, Emile Corneille, Emmanuel Francois, Florence Bellande Robertson, Jean-Pierre Saint-Victor, Frantz Bourget, Dimy Doresca, Daniel Silva, Albert Levy, Axan Abellard, Carlet Auguste, Caroline Racine, Daniel Rouzier, Daniele Jean-Pierre, Esq., Fred Tony, Dumarsais M. Siméus, Fritz Fougy, Henri Deschamps, Hendrik Verwaay, Henry Paul, Jacques Deschamps Fils, Herve Francois, Jean-Henry Céant, Harriet Michel, Gregory Brandt, Gabrielle Alexis, Esq., Gary Jean-Baptiste, Hans Tippenhauer, Frederic Madsen, Gerd Pasquet, Gilbert Bigio, Georges J. Casimir

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup

In Washington, there is an anti-Aristide demonstration sponsored by the Haiti Democracy Project. Several hundred protesters, including many Haitian Americans and recent exiles, attend the event. Many of the demonstrators arrive in buses from New York and Boston. [Miami Herald, 1/30/2004]

Entity Tags: Democratic Convergence, Jean-Bertrand Aristide

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup

Comite des Avocats pour le Respect des Libertes Individuelles (CARLI), a Haitian “human rights” organization, compiles a list with the names of about 85 alleged human rights violators, all of which belong to either the Lavalas party or to the Haitian National Police. The names come from phone calls made to their “hotline” and possibly from other leads as well. CARLI issues leaflets containing the names to the public, calling for their arrest. The leaflets—published only in French, not Creole—are also given to the US embassy and USAID, which sponsors the hotline program. It is unclear whether or not CARLI—whose staff consists of only two volunteer lawyers—investigates and confirms the allegations before it publicizes the names of the condemned (see February 29, 2004). The accused are never contacted to respond to the charges. People named on the list flee their homes and go into hiding, fearing that the rebel paramilitary groups will come after them. They later tell a National Lawyers Guild human rights delegation that they were not guilty of the charges and that the list had been used as a political ploy by the opposition to instill fear. The delegation also interviews CARLI’s two lawyers and uncovers strong evidence suggesting that the organization is a tool of the opposition (see February 29, 2004). [Griffin, 4/11/2004 pdf file]

Entity Tags: Tom Griffin, USAID, National Committee for Haitian Rights (NCHR), Edward Carlson, March 2004 National Lawyers Guild Human Rights Delegation to Haiti, Judy DaCruz

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup

Rebels take over cities in northern Haiti and move towards Haiti’s capital, Port-au-Prince, overrunning President Jean-Bertrand Aristide’s local police forces and vowing to overthrow him. [New York Times, 2/29/2004] The rebels include various factions. The leading groups are led by Louis-Jodel Chamblain, a convicted murderer and former death squad leader under “Baby Doc” Duvalier, and Guy Philippe, also a known human rights violator (see October 31, 1991) (see 1997-1999). [CounterPunch, 3/1/2004; Amnesty International, 3/3/2004; Associated Press, 3/3/2004]

Entity Tags: Louis-Jodel Chamblain, Roger Francisco Noriega, Jean-Claude Duvalier, Jean-Bertrand Aristide

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup, US-Haiti (1804-2005)

US Representative Barbara Lee (D-CA) writes in a letter to US Secretary of State Colin Powell: “Our failure to support the democratic process and help restore order looks like a covert effort to overthrow a government. There is a violent coup d’etat in the making, and it appears that the United States is aiding and abetting the attempt to violently topple the Aristide Government. With all due respect, this looks like ‘regime change.’ How can we call for democracy in Iraq and not say very clearly that we support democratic elections as the only option in Haiti?” [Office of Representative Barbara Lee, 2/11/2004; US Congress, 2/24/2004; Alternet, 3/1/2004]

Entity Tags: Colin Powell, Barbara Lee

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup

US Representative Barbara Lee (D-CA) writes a letter to US Secretary of State Colin Powell accusing the State Department of intentionally subverting democracy in Haiti. “It has been clear to me for some time that the state department has been trying to undermine President Aristide… I am convinced that this effort to force President Aristide out of office by any means is a power-grab by the same forces that staged a coup d’etat and forced him out of office in 1991. The opposition that claims to be peaceful is not peaceful and they are responsible for the violence in Gonaives and other parts of Haiti. Should these actions by Andre Apaid and his Committee of 184, thugs and violent protestors receive support or encouragement from the United States, thereby increasing the risk of a coup d’etat, there may well be a bloodbath on the streets of Haiti.” [Office of Representative Barbara Lee, 2/11/2004; Office of Representative Barbara Lee, 2/13/2004; Alternet, 3/1/2004]

Entity Tags: Colin Powell, Barbara Lee

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup

US Secretary of State Colin Powell states the US has “no enthusiasm” for sending troops to protect Haiti’s government from the approaching rebel forces. [BBC, 2/18/2004]

Entity Tags: Colin Powell

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup

French Foreign Minister Dominique de Villepin outlines a proposal he will submit to the UN on February 26, which calls for Aristide’s resignation and recommends that an international security force be dispatched to Haiti to help stabilize the country. According to the minister, President Aristide “bears heavy responsibility for the current situation” and it is his responsibility “to accept the consequences while respecting the rule of law.” Villepin adds: “Everyone sees quite well that a new page must be opened in Haiti’s history.” [New York Times, 2/26/2004] Notably, a few months before, Aristide’s government had called on France to pay some $21 billion in reparations to Haiti (see November 2003). [London Review of Books, 4/15/2004]

Entity Tags: Dominique de Villepin

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup

Guy Philippe tells the Miami Herald during an interview conducted in Cap Haitein, Haiti, that the man he admires most is former Chilean dictator Gen. Augusto Pinochet. “Pinochet made Chile what it is,” the 35-year-old rebel says. Philippe adds that US President Ronald Reagan is his next favorite. [Miami Herald, 2/28/2004; One World, 3/2/2004; Jamaica Observer, 3/7/2004]

Entity Tags: Augusto Pinochet, Ronald Reagan, Roger Francisco Noriega

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup

US officials delay a small group of additional bodyguards from the Steele Foundation on their way to Haiti. [Democracy Now!, 3/2/2004]

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup

Shortly before his ouster, Aristide contacts the US firm that provides his security, the San Francisco-based Steele Foundation, and asks for additional guards. The company—made up of former US Special Forces soldiers, intelligence officers, and other security experts—has been providing Haiti with its security services since 1998. Haiti’s contract with the firm is approved by the US State Department. But Aristide’s last minute attempt to increase his security is blocked by the White House. According to news reports, the Steele Foundation asks the US embassy in Port-au-Prince if it can rely on American protection in the event that the rebels arrive at the presidential palace. The Steele Foundation is told that no such protection would be provided. The company had earlier helped repel attacks against the presidential palace from paramilitary groups in December 2001. [Miami Herald, 3/1/2004; Democracy Now!, 3/2/2004; Associated Press, 3/2/2004]

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup

In the evening, Aristide family friend Randal Robinson calls Aristide’s residence in Port-au-Prince. An unfamiliar voice answers the phone and says that both the president and his wife are busy and cannot take the call. [Democracy Now!, 3/1/2004]

Entity Tags: Randal Robinson, Jean-Bertrand Aristide, Mildred Aristide

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup

Haitian President Jean-Bertrand Aristide informs Jamaican Prime Minister P. J. Patterson and Foreign Minister K. D. Knight that he does not plan to resign, despite demands from armed rebels who are quickly closing in on the capital. [Associated Press, 3/2/2004]

Entity Tags: K D Knight, P J Patterson

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup

US Secretary of State Colin Powell calls former US Congressman Ron Dellums, who is working for Aristide as a Washington lobbyist, and warns him that the United States will not protect Aristide from the rebels. [Associated Press, 3/2/2004]

Entity Tags: Colin Powell, Ron Dellums

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup

Haitian President Jean-Bertrand Aristide is escorted on a US-charted jet to the Central African Republic. The details of this event are disputed.
US' version of events - Aristide contacts US ambassador James Foley on the night of January 28 and asks him three questions: “What did he think would be best for Haiti? Would the United States guarantee his protection? And could he choose his destination for exile?” At 11pm, Ambassador Foley informs Aristide that the United States can ensure his safe departure if he decides to resign and adds that this is what the Bush administration feels he should do. [Independent, 3/2/2004; Associated Press, 3/2/2004; Washington Post, 3/3/2004] Aristide and his American wife decide that they will accept the American offer. [Washington Post, 3/3/2004] Later in the night, Foley attempts to email the president but Aristide’s computer has already been packed. [Washington Post, 3/3/2004] Some time after midnight, Ambassador Foley telephones the US Embassy’s second-ranking officer in Port-au-Prince, Luis Moreno, and asks that he escort Aristide and his wife to the airport. [Washington Post, 3/3/2004] Shortly after 4 am, US Diplomat Luis Moreno arrives at the gates of Aristide’s residence in the suburb of Tabarre with a fellow US diplomat and six State Department security officers. Inside Aristide’s house the lights are on. Aristide meets Moreno at the door with his suitcases packed. “You know why I’m here,” Moreno says in Spanish. “Yes, of course,” Aristide is quoted as saying in response. Moreno asks Aristide for a resignation letter and Aristide promises to give one to him before he leaves the island. “You have my word and you know my word is good,” Aristide is quoted as saying. They then travel to the airport in separate vehicles, without any further conversation. They arrive at the airport and about 20 minutes before the plane arrives, Moreno again asks for the letter. Aristide provides the letter and then the two converse for the next few minutes. “I expressed sadness that I was here to watch him leave,” Moreno later tells The Washington Post. “Sometimes life is like that,” Aristide responds. “Then I shook his hand and he went away.” [Aristide, 2/28/2004; Reuters, 3/1/2004; Washington Post, 3/3/2004] A US-charted commercial plane arrives in Port-au-Prince at approximately 4:30am. [Aristide, 2/28/2004; Associated Press, 3/2/2004] US authorities do not force Aristide onto the leased plane. He goes willingly. [BBC, 3/1/2004; Associated Press, 3/2/2004] At 6:15am, the plane departs. [Miami Herald, 2/29/2004] “He was not kidnapped. We did not force him on to the airplane. He went onto the airplane willingly, and that’s the truth,” Secretary of State Colin Powell claims. [BBC, 3/1/2004; Associated Press, 3/2/2004] “The allegations that somehow we kidnapped former President Aristide are absolutely baseless, absurd.” [Reuters, 3/2/2004]
Aristide's version of events - US soldiers arrive at Aristide’s residence and order the president not to use any phones and to come with them immediately. Aristide, his wife Mildred and his brother-in-law are taken at gunpoint to the airport. Aristide is warned by US diplomat Luis Moreno that if he does not leave Haiti, thousands of Haitians would likely die and rebel leader Guy Philippe would probably attack the palace and kill him. Moreover, the US warns Aristide that they are withdrawing his US-provided security. [Democracy Now!, 3/1/2004; BBC, 3/1/2004; Associated Press, 3/2/2004] Aristide composes and signs a letter explaining his departure. [Democracy Now!, 3/1/2004; Associated Press, 3/2/2004] The president, his wife, and his brother-in-law board a commercial jet charted by the US government. His own security forces are also taken and directed to a separate section of the plane. During the flight, Aristide and his wife remain in the company of soldiers. The shades on the windows of the plane are kept down. Soldiers tell him they are under orders not to tell him where he is going. [Democracy Now!, 3/1/2004] The plane stops first in Antigua, where it stays on the ground for two hours, and then flies for six hours across the Atlantic to the Central African Republic. Aristide is unable to communicate with anyone on the ground during the entire 20-hour period he is on the plane because it is presumably not equipped with a telephone. Shortly before touchdown, Aristide is informed that the destination is the Central African Republic. Upon arrival, Aristide is escorted to the “Palace of the Renaissance,” where he makes one phone call to his mother in Florida and her brother. He is provided a room with a balcony, but is not permitted to move around, and he remains in the company of soldiers. [Democracy Now!, 3/1/2004; Associated Press, 3/2/2004] His phone is taken away by African authorities and [Miami Herald, 3/3/2004] he is not provided a replacement or a landline. On the morning of March 1, he contacts US Congresswomen Maxine Waters and family friend Randall Robinson with a cell phone that is smuggled to him.(see March 1, 2004) [Democracy Now!, 3/1/2004] In an interview with CNN, he says he considers the events a “coup d’etat” and a “modern” version of kidnapping. [Inter Press Service, 3/2/2004]
Joseph Pierre's version of events - According to Joseph Pierre, a concierge at Aristide’s residence, whose account is reported in the French newspaper Lib�ration, Aristide is taken away early Sunday morning by US soldiers. “White Americans came by helicopter to get him. They also took his bodyguards. It was around two o’clock in the morning. He didn’t want to leave. The American soldiers forced him to. Because they were pointing guns at him, he had to follow them. The Americans are second only to God in terms of strength.” [Independent, 3/2/2004]

Entity Tags: Jean-Bertrand Aristide, Mildred Aristide, Maxine Waters, Joseph Pierre, Roger Francisco Noriega, Randal Robinson, James Foley, Luis Moreno, Colin Powell

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup, US-Haiti (1804-2005)

Haitian police abandon their posts in Le Cayes, Haiti, and flee approaching paramilitary rebel forces. 30-year-old “Ti Gary” steps in to fill the power vacuum, making himself the town’s law enforcer. He will order at least 5 public extra-judiciary executions. [Griffin, 4/11/2004 pdf file]

Entity Tags: Ti Gary

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup

With the removal of Haitian President Jean-Bertrand Aristide, Boniface Alexandre, chief justice of the Supreme Court, is sworn in as president at the home of Prime Minister Yvon Neptune, in conformance with Haiti’s constitutional rite of succession. The ceremony is attended by US Ambassador James Foley. However without a parliament (see January 2004), his appointment cannot be approved as required by Haiti’s 1987 Constitution. [Reuters, 2/29/2004; New York Times, 2/29/2004; Miami Herald, 3/1/2004]

Entity Tags: Boniface Alexandre, Jean-Bertrand Aristide, James Foley

Timeline Tags: Haiti Coup

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