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1913: Albanian State Created by Great Powers

At a conference of their ambassadors, the six Great Powers (Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Italy, Russia, and the United Kingdom) decide to create an independent and neutral Albanian kingdom, with no ties to the Ottomans. Under a July 29 agreement, the Great Powers nominate the prince of Albania, run the government and budget of Albania for a renewable term of 10 years, and create an Albanian gendarmerie, under Swedish Army officers. The conference also decides Albania’s borders. In addition to demanding a commercial port on the Adriatic Sea, which the conference quickly accepts, Serbia wants its border to extend from Lake Ohri, along the Black Drin River to the White Drin River, which excludes Kosova and parts of Macedonia with an Albanian population. Montenegro wants its border to be on the Mat River, or at least the Drin River, giving it parts of northern Albania. Greece wants its border to begin at the city of Vlora and include Gjirokastra and Korca in southern Albania. The Albanian government in Vlora wants Albania to unite all Albanian populated areas, including Kosova, parts of Macedonia and Montenegro, and the Greek region of Cameria. Austria and Italy support the Albanian position, but lose to Russia, which supports Serbia. Instead of giving Shkodra to Montenegro, the conference leaves it in Albania, Montenegro keeps what it was given by the Berlin Congress in the summer of 1878, and Kosova is given to Serbia. Sir Edward Grey makes a five-part proposal to settle the border with Greece. A commission is empowered to go to the area and settle the border, and recommends that Korca and Sazan, an island near Vlora, be given to Albania. The occupation forces, especially the Greeks, hamper the commission. The Florence Protocol in December 1913 gives Cameria, which Greece calls Northern Epirus, to Greece. At the other end of Albania, a commission attempts to implement an agreement from March 22, and modified April 14. Serbia continues to occupy northern Albania, leading to an Albanian backlash there in September and October. Serbia says there is a need for its occupation forces in the region, but Austria-Hungary threatens military force if Serb forces do not leave within eight days. The commission leaves the issue there because of winter and then the start of World War I the next summer. [Kola, 2003, pp. 13-16]

Entity Tags: United Kingdom, Austria-Hungary, Albania, Edward Grey, France, Germany, Montenegro, Serbia, Russia, Macedonia, Italy, Greece

Timeline Tags: Kosovar Albanian Struggle

A new international alliance of culture ministers “to promote and protect cultural diversity” is formed at the conclusion of the two-day International Meeting on Culture Policy held in Ottawa, Canada. Attending culture ministers from Armenia, Barbados, Brazil, Canada, Croatia, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Ivory Coast, Mexico, Morocco, Poland, Senegal, South Africa, Sweden, Switzerland, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Ukraine, and the United Kingdom—dubbed the Ottawa Group of Ministers—agree to set up the International Network on Cultural Policy (INCP). Both the ministers’ meeting and the formation of the new alliance were launched at the initiative of Canada, largely through its Heritage Minister Sheila Copps. An initial “contact group” consisting of Sweden, Mexico, Greece, and Canada is formed to coordinate activities of the new network. Canada provides the first secretariat for INCP. The ministers agree to set the next meeting to be held the following year in Mexico, and the meet after that, in 2000, in Greece. Canadian Heritage Minister Sheila Copps says, in the light of the network’s formation, “Canadians are delighted that we’ve found so many other countries that share our determination to put culture front and centre on the global stage and to promote cultural diversity for everyone in the world.” [International Network on Cultural Policy, 6/30/1998]

Entity Tags: Sheila Copps, International Network on Cultural Policy

Timeline Tags: Neoliberalism and Globalization

US nuclear missiles such as this one will no longer be restricted under the ABM treaty.US nuclear missiles such as this one will no longer be restricted under the ABM treaty. [Source: Associated Press / CNN]President Bush announces that the US is unilaterally withdrawing from the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty (see May 26, 1972). The treaty, negotiated with the former Soviet Union in 1972, sets strict limitations on missile and missile defense developments by both Russia and the US. After the six-month withdrawal period is concluded in mid-2002, the US will begin developing an anti-missile defense system, an outgrowth and extension of the old “Star Wars” system (see March 23, 1983). Bush tells reporters: “Today I am giving formal notice to Russia that the United States of America is withdrawing from this almost 30-year-old treaty.… I have concluded the ABM treaty hinders our government’s ability to develop ways to protect our people from future terrorist or rogue state missile attacks.” Bush explains: “The 1972 ABM treaty was signed by the United States and the Soviet Union at a much different time, in a vastly different world. One of the signatories, the Soviet Union, no longer exists and neither does the hostility that once led both our countries to keep thousands of nuclear weapons on hair-trigger alert, pointed at each other.… Today, as the events of September 11 made all too clear, the greatest threats to both our countries come not from each other, or from other big powers in the world, but from terrorists who strike without warning or rogue states who seek weapons of mass destruction.” Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld calls the treaty “outdated.” [White House, 12/13/2001; CNN, 12/14/2001]
Follows Failure to Persuade Russia to Drop Treaty - The decision follows months of talks in which Bush officials attempted without success to persuade Russia to set the treaty aside and negotiate a new one more favorable to US interests. Bush says that he and Russian President Vladimir Putin “have also agreed that my decision to withdraw from the treaty will not in any way undermine our new relationship or Russian security.” Putin calls Bush’s decision a “mistake,” and says the two nations should move quickly to create a “new framework of our strategic relationship.” Putin says on Russian television that the US decision “presents no threat to the security of the Russian Federation.” He also says that the US and Russia should decrease their present stockpiles of nuclear weapons. He wants what he calls “radical, non-reversible and verifiable reductions in offensive weapons”; in turn, the Bush administration is against any sort of legally binding agreements. Putin says, “Today, when the world has been faced with new threats, one cannot allow a legal vacuum in the sphere of strategic stability.” [CNN, 12/14/2001; CNN, 12/14/2001]
'Abdication of Responsibility' - Senate Democrats (see December 13-14, 2001) and non-proliferation experts (see December 13, 2001) strongly question the decision to withdraw. Singapore’s New Straits Times writes: “History will one day judge the US decision to withdraw from the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty in the same way it views the US failure in 1919 to join the League of Nations—as an abdication of responsibility, a betrayal of humankind’s best hopes, an act of folly. By announcing the decision now, in the midst of a war on terrorism that commands worldwide support, the Bush administration has also displayed a cynicism that will adversely affect the mood of cooperation that has characterized international relations since September 11.” [Carter, 2004, pp. 272-273] Sweden’s foreign ministry warns of possibly “serious consequences for the future of international disarmament.” [BBC, 12/13/2001]
Seizure of Presidential Power - Regardless of the wisdom of withdrawing from the treaty, Bush’s decision has another effect that is subjected to far less public scrutiny: by unilaterally withdrawing the US from the treaty on his own authority, Bush, in the words of author Charlie Savage, “seized for the presidency the power to pull the United States out of any treaty without obtaining the consent of Congress.” Savage, writing in 2007, will note that the Constitution does not provide a clear method of withdrawing the US from an international treaty. However, he will write, judging from the fact that the US Senate must vote to ratify a treaty before it becomes binding, it can be inferred that the Founders intended for the legislature, not the executive branch, to have the power to pull out of a treaty. In Volume 70 of the Federalist Papers, Alexander Hamilton wrote that treaties are far too important to entrust to the decision of one person who will be in office for as few as four years. Hamilton wrote, “The history of human conduct does not warrant that exalted opinion of human virtue which would make it wise in a nation to commit interests of so delicate and momentous a kind, as those which concern its intercourse with the rest of the world, to the sole disposal of a magistrate created and circumstanced as would be a president of the United States.” [Savage, 2007, pp. 140]

Entity Tags: Vladimir Putin, Charlie Savage, George W. Bush, Singapore Straits Times, Bush administration (43)

Timeline Tags: US International Relations

Ahmed Agiza.Ahmed Agiza. [Source: CBC]In Stockholm, Sweden, around 5 p.m., a group of Swedish and US agents seize Egyptian nationals Ahmed Agiza and Muhammed Al-Zery on the street without warning, and drive them immediately to the Stockholm airport. The two men applied for asylum in 2000 and are legal Swedish residents. A Swedish policeman stationed at the airport later reports that the handful of agents escorting the Egyptians are wearing hoods. [Washington Post, 7/25/2004] At the local airport police office, the clothes of the detainees are cut with scissors, and replaced with red overalls, and the men are tied with handcuffs and leg irons. They are then taken aboard a US-registered Gulfstream V jet, and by 10:00 p.m., they are in the air on their way to Cairo, Egypt, where they allegedly will be tortured. “[I]t was pretty blatant” that they will be tortured, a former intelligence official says. [Guardian, 9/13/2004] More than a month will pass before Swedish officials visit Agiza and Zery to ensure that they are being treated properly. In a report made public shortly after the first visit, Swedish Ambassador to Egypt Sven Linder will write that the two prisoners said they had been treated “excellently” and that “they seemed well-nourished and showed no external signs of physical abuse or such things.” But in the section of the report marked classified, he writes that Agiza complained of having been subjected to “excessive brutality” at the hands of the Swedish security police, and that he was repeatedly beaten in Egyptian prisons. [Washington Post, 7/25/2004] Agiza’s lawyers later acknowledge that he has been a member of “Egyptian Islamic Jihad,” and was close at one time to al-Qaeda second-in-command Ayman al-Zawahiri. According to his lawyers, however, Agiza has not had ties with Zawahiri since a decade ago, and denounces the use of violence by al-Qaeda. In 1999, while living in Iran, he was convicted in absentia by an Egyptian military court for being a member of an illegal organization. He will later be sentenced to 25 years in prison in Egypt (see October 2003). Al-Zery’s involvement with terrorism, on the other hand, is much less apparent. According to Swedish officials, he too was convicted in absentia in Egypt, though this is disputed by his lawyers and human rights groups. He will be released after two years without being charged (see October 2003). [Washington Post, 7/25/2004]

Entity Tags: Muhammed Al-Zery, Ahmed Agiza, Ayman al-Zawahiri, Sven Linder

Timeline Tags: Torture of US Captives, Complete 911 Timeline

In Egypt, Muhammed Al-Zery is released after having spent almost two years in prison without being charged. He is an Egyptian who had been living in Sweden as a legal Swedish resident. Together with fellow Egyptian Ahmed Agiza, Al-Zery was whisked away from Sweden on December 18, 2001 on a CIA Gulfstream jet with the cooperation of the Swedish government (see December 18, 2001). Both were allegedly tortured in Egypt. [Washington Post, 7/25/2004; Guardian, 9/13/2004] Through family, attorneys, and Swedish diplomats, Agiza and Al-Zery have claimed that they were repeatedly subjected to electrical shocks. Agiza remains in prison and eventually, in April 2004, he will be convicted and sentenced to 25 years in prison. In 2008, it will be announced that the Swedish government is giving Al-Zery $500,000 for the illegal circumstances of his deportation to Egypt. The government also says that it believes Al-Zery was tortured in Egypt. However, Al-Zery remains in Egypt while attempting to gain asylum in Sweden. [Associated Press, 7/3/2008]

Entity Tags: Ahmed Agiza, Muhammed Al-Zery

Timeline Tags: Torture of US Captives

The 2005 NPT Review Conference, held once every five years to review and extend the implementation of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (see July 1, 1968), is an unusually contentious affair, and the US is at the center of the imbroglio. After the 2000 NPT Review Conference (see Late May, 2000), the US, under George W. Bush, refused to join in calls to implement the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT—see September 10, 1996). The US’s recalcitrance is, if anything, magnified five years later. Many representatives of the NPT signatories focus their ire upon the US, even though two signatories, Iran and North Korea, are, in author J. Peter Scoblic’s words, “violating either the spirit or the letter of the treaty” in developing their own nuclear weapons. Other nations send their foreign ministers to the conference, and in turn the US could have been expected to send Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice. (In 1995 and 2000, the US had sent, respectively, Vice President Al Gore and Secretary of State Madeleine Albright to represent the US.) Instead, the US sends State Department functionary Stephen Rademaker. Not only is Rademaker’s lesser rank a studied insult to the conference, Rademaker himself is an ardent conservative and a protege of arms control opponent John Bolton. Rademaker enters the conference prepared to use the forum to browbeat Iran and North Korea; instead, he finds himself defending the US’s intransigence regarding the CTBT. The New Agenda Coalition, made up of Brazil, Egypt, Ireland, Mexico, South Africa, Sweden, and New Zealand—all allies of the US—focuses on “the troubling development that some nuclear-weapon states are researching or even planning to develop new or significantly modify existing warheads,” a Bush administration priority (see May 1, 2001 and December 13, 2001). “These actions have the potential to create the conditions for a new nuclear arms race.” Even Japan, usually a solid US ally, says that all nuclear-armed states should take “further steps toward nuclear disarmament.” Canada, the closest of US allies both in policy and geography, is more blunt, with its representative saying, “If governments simply ignore or discard commitments whenever they prove inconvenient, we will never build an edifice of international cooperation and confidence in the security realm.” And outside the conference, former British Foreign Minister Robin Cook lambasts the US in an op-ed entitled “America’s Broken Unclear Promises Endanger Us All,” blasting the Bush administration for its belief that “obligations under the nonproliferation treaty are mandatory for other nations and voluntary for the US.” For his part, Rademaker says just before the conference, “We are not approaching this review conference from the cynical perspective of, we are going to toss a few crumbs to the rest of the world, and, by doing that, try to buy goodwill or bribe countries into agreeing to the agenda that we think they should focus on rather than some other agenda.” In 2008, Scoblic will interpret Rademaker’s statement: “In other words, the administration was not going to engage in diplomacy even if it would encourage other states to see things our way—which only meant that it was quite certain they never would.” [United Nations, 5/2005; Scoblic, 2008, pp. 277-280]

Entity Tags: J. Peter Scoblic, Bush administration (43), George W. Bush, Robin Cook, Stephen Rademaker, US Department of State, Madeleine Albright

Timeline Tags: US International Relations

Save the Children releases a report ranking the status of mothers and children in 125 countries. The report—based on 10 indicators pertaining to health and education—concludes that Sweden is the best country in the world for mothers and children to live. The US and United Kingdom are tied for tenth place. The US places much lower, however, in infant mortality, ranking second-to-last among 33 industrialized nations. It shares the spot with Hungary, Malta, Poland, and Slovakia with a death rate of nearly 5 per 1,000 babies. Save the Children’s data shows a remarkable difference in mortality rates between white and black infants. According to the report, black babies are twice as likely as white babies to be premature, have a low birth weight, or die at birth. The infant mortality rate among US blacks—9 per 1,000—is closer to the rates of developing nations. For example, in war-torn Colombia the mortality rate is 12 per 1,000. [Save the Children, 5/2006 pdf file; Save the Children, 5/9/2006; Associated Press, 5/10/2006]

Entity Tags: Save the Children

Timeline Tags: US Health Care

The UNESCO Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions enters into force. In accordance with the ratification procedure, this happens three months after 30 countries deposited their instruments of ratification at UNESCO. UNESCO Director General Koichiro Matsuura notes, “None of UNESCO’s other cultural conventions has been adopted by so many states in so little time.” The 30 countries are Albania, Austria, Belarus, Bolivia, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Canada, Croatia, Denmark, Djibouti, Ecuador, Estonia, Finland, France, Guatemala, India, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Mali, Malta, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Namibia, Peru, the Republic of Moldova, Romania, Senegal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, and Togo. By the time it comes into force, 22 more countries have deposited their ratification instruments at UNESCO. [UNESCO, 3/2007]

Entity Tags: Koichiro Matsuura, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, UNESCO Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions

Timeline Tags: Neoliberalism and Globalization

According to unemployment statistics compiled by Eurostat, the European Union unemployment rate has risen to 9.2 percent, its highest since September 1999, with 3.1 million jobs lost in April 2009, an increase of 556,000 from March. In the Eurozone, 396,000 jobs were shed and almost 15 million became unemployed. The lowest unemployment figures were in the Netherlands at 3.0 percent and Austria at 4.2 percent. The highest figures were in Spain at 18.1 percent, Latvia, 17.4 percent, and Lithuania, 16.8 percent. Eurostat is the Statistical Office of the European Communities located in Luxumbourg and is charged with providing statistics for comparisons between European countries and regions. The Eurozone is comprised of the 15 EU states that have adopted the euro and created a currency union. [MercoPress, 6/3/2009; Eurostat.com, 6/3/2009; Ezine Articles, 6/3/2009]

Entity Tags: European Union, Eurostat

Timeline Tags: Global Economic Crises

The US spends more than any other nation in the world on health care, but ranks only 50th among 224 nations in life expectancy, according to the 2009 CIA World Factbook. Experts say that this fact could raise serious questions in the debate over health care reform. Americans have an average life span of 78.1 years; the populations of 49 other nations live longer, on average. Japan is first in life expectancy, at 83 years; Australia, Iceland, Italy, San Marino, Switzerland, Andorra, Canada, and France round out the top 10 countries. Other countries, such as Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Singapore, Greece, Spain, and Portugal also do better than the US in life expectancy. The bottom 10 nations are, in reverse order, Sierra Leone, Afghanistan, Zimbabwe, Lesotho, Zambia, Chad, Uganda, Swaziland, Mozambique, and Guinea-Bissau, with life spans ranging from averages of 41 to 48 years. Some experts note that the US is the only developed nation to have a virtually completely privatized health care system. “What we are able to find in the industrialized world is that life expectancy will be influenced in a beneficial manner to the extent that health care expenditure is publicly financed,” says public health professor Harvey Brenner. “The higher the government expenditure on health care, the lower will be the mortality rate.” A study from the University of Chicago shows that a single-payer system—government-run health care—may be associated with higher life expectancy. The governments of such nations as Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Australia, and Canada have government-run health care, and their citizens have some of the longest life spans in the world. The author of the study, Bianca Frogner, writes: “Inevitably the conversation about reforming our health care system focuses on the question of what are we getting for our money and how are others doing with their health care dollars. Life expectancy, along with mortality and morbidity rates, are fairly straightforward numbers to rely on.” Other comparisons show that Scandinavian and other European countries have lower birth mortality numbers than the US, though babies born with abnormally low birth weights tend to fare better in the US system than in the Scandinavian systems. [CNN, 6/11/2009]

Entity Tags: University of Chicago, Bianca Frogner, Harvey Brenner

Timeline Tags: US Health Care

Wikileaks’ founder Julian Assange arrives in Stockholm, Sweden, to give a speech at the invitation of Sweden’s Social Democratic Party. The event is organized by 31-year-old Anna Ardin, press secretary of the Brotherhood Movement, an adjunct of the Social Democratic Party. Ardin invites Assange to stay at her flat while she visits her family for a few days out in the country. [TNN, 12/9/2010]

Entity Tags: Anna Ardin, WikiLeaks, Julian Assange

Timeline Tags: Misc Entries, Domestic Propaganda

Wikileaks founder Julian Assange has sexual intercourse with Anna Ardin, a Swedish event organiser whose flat he is staying at. Assange has been at her flat since August 11 (see August 11, 2010), but she has been away. She now returns and the two end up in bed. The intercourse will later form the basis of sexual assault charges filed against Assange, although the precise reason for the charges is unclear. Ardin seems to have been willing to have sex with Assange, but there may have been a dispute over a broken condom. [TNN, 12/9/2010]

Entity Tags: Anna Ardin, WikiLeaks, Julian Assange

Timeline Tags: Misc Entries, Domestic Propaganda

WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange gives a 90-minute speech about how the truth is the first casualty of war. The speech is attended by Anna Ardin, who will later give police information leading them to charge Assange with sexually assaulting her the day before (see August 13, 2010). Ardin does not show any signs of being disturbed by the alleged assault during the speech. The lecture is also attended by Sofia Wilen. She and Assange will have a sexual encounter, due to which further charges will be filed against him two days later (see August 16-17, 2010). [TNN, 12/9/2010]

Entity Tags: Anna Ardin, Julian Assange, Sofia Wilen, WikiLeaks

Timeline Tags: Misc Entries, Domestic Propaganda

Anna Ardin, a Swedish woman who will later make a complaint to the police against WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange leading them to file sexual asssault charges against him, sends a Tweet about a party she and Assange are currently attending at her flat. The Tweet reads, “Sitting outside; nearly freezing; with the world’s coolest people; it’s pretty amazing.” The encounter over which police will file charges against Assange took place the previous night (see August 13, 2010). After news of the charges becomes public, Ardin will delete the Tweet. [TNN, 12/9/2010]

Entity Tags: Anna Ardin, WikiLeaks, Julian Assange

Timeline Tags: Misc Entries, Domestic Propaganda

WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange has sex with aspiring Swedish photographer Sofia Wilen. They have sex on the evening of August 16; the sex is consensual, Assange wears a condom, and no criminal complaint will be made about it. However, when they have sex again the next morning Assange does not wear a condom, apparently against Wilen’s wishes. It is this second encounter that will lead to a rape charge being filed against Assange, although he will say the sex was consensual this time as well. [TNN, 12/9/2010]

Entity Tags: Julian Assange, WikiLeaks, Sofia Wilen

Timeline Tags: Misc Entries, Domestic Propaganda

Sofia Wilen, a Swedish woman whose sexual encounter with WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange two days ago will lead to charges being filed against him (see August 16-17, 2010), calls Anna Ardin, another woman who has had sex with Assange that will lead to charges (see August 13, 2010). Wilen says that she has had unprotected sex with Assange and is worried she may have contracted an STD or become pregnant. Ardin tells Wilen that she has also had sex with Assange. The two women moved in related circles before this call, but it is unclear if they knew each other and, if so, how well. [TNN, 12/9/2010] Two days later the two women will go to the police (see August 20, 2010).

Entity Tags: Julian Assange, Anna Ardin, WikiLeaks, Sofia Wilen

Timeline Tags: Misc Entries, Domestic Propaganda

Anna Ardin and Sofia Wilen, two Swedish women WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange recently had sex with (see August 13, 2010 and August 16-17, 2010), go to the Swedish police to complain about him. The complaint will lead to criminal charges being filed against Assange for rape and sexual assault. Ardin and Wilen tell the police of their dealings with Assange, and Ardin says that she was willing to have sex with him, but that, against her wishes, he deliberately broke the condom they were using during sex. Wilen says that Assange wore a condom the first time they had sex, but not the second time, even though she wanted him to use a condom both times. [TNN, 12/9/2010]

Entity Tags: Anna Ardin, Julian Assange, Sofia Wilen, WikiLeaks

Timeline Tags: Misc Entries, Domestic Propaganda

The left-leaning periodical Counterpunch publishes an article by Israel Shamir and Paul Bennett saying that Anna Ardin, a woman who has made sexual assault allegations against WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange (see August 20, 2010), is indirectly linked to the CIA. Towards the end of a long article with a tone of contempt for the allegations against Assange, Shamir and Bennett comment that Ardin is a politcal opponent of former Cuban dictator Fidel Castro and has published articles attacking the Cuban communist regime. The publisher of Ardin’s articles is apparently linked to the Union Liberal Cubana, run by the CIA-connected Carlos Alberto Montaner. Ardin has also visited—and been deported from—Cuba, where she interacted with the feminist anti-Castro Las Damas de Blanco organization, which receives funds from the US government and is linked to the convicted anti-communist terrorist Luis Posada. [CounterPunch, 9/14/2010] The allegations will later receive much attention on the Internet and be picked up by Internet news publication Raw Story. [Raw Story, 12/6/2010]

Entity Tags: Paul Bennett, Anna Ardin, Julian Assange, WikiLeaks, Israel Shamir

Timeline Tags: Misc Entries, Domestic Propaganda

The Internet retailer Amazon cancels WikiLeaks’ server account, removing its website from its servers. The move follows pressure from Senator Joe Lieberman, chairman of the Senate Homeland Security Committee (see December 1, 2010). As a result, the WikiLeaks website is inaccessible for a time, but it soon moves to servers in Sweden. The announcement that Amazon has got rid of WikiLeaks is also made by Lieberman, who adds that the “decision to cut off WikiLeaks now is the right decision and should set the standard for other companies WikiLeaks is using to distribute its illegally seized material.” Amazon attributes the break between the two organizations to a terms of service violation by WikiLeaks. However, WikiLeaks expresses disappointment with Amazon, saying in a post on Twitter that if Amazon is “so uncomfortable with the First Amendment, they should get out of the business of selling books.” [Guardian, 12/1/2010]

Entity Tags: Senate Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Committee, Joseph Lieberman, Amazon.com, Inc., WikiLeaks

Timeline Tags: Misc Entries, Domestic Propaganda

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